Why & How Has US Repeatedly Failed to Carry out Its 70 Years-old “Regime Change” Policy in “North Korea”?

On the Historical Significance of “Songun (선군: i.e., Military First) Politics”


This short paper is prepared to present at the September 29th International Symposium on the occasion of 70th Anniversary of Kim Il Sung University Foundation in Pyongyang, Korea. The paper will attempt to explore some of the Historical Significance of Songun Politics of Democratic People’s Republic of Korea(DPRK, aka, “North Korea”). Let’s find out first where that Korean language Songun which literally means “military-first” is originated from. The still relatively new expression has become broadly popularized ever since Chairman Kim Jong Il era began since mid 1990s. In fact this new sociopolitical language was a newly-reinvented wording from late President Kim Il Sung’s “Chong-dae-woo-sun” (총대우선) principle of the 1920s-40s. The latter literally means ‘gun-priority’. The gun priority, though sounds different, however, does essentially mean the military-first as well. The first had been popular ever since Kim’s legendary ‘anti-Japanese armed struggle’ started from late 1920s.


The philosophy of military-first(priority) Korean revolution however shouldn’t be understood as a one-dimensional concept limited to strictly military-related matters only. Rather I believe it should be understood as a multidimensional concept. Thus I don’t think the “military-first” mechanical means the military-only or military-centered idea. Therefore the language mustn’t be read literally. Even if it says ‘military-first’, I believe it should be interpreted something as a “people-centered military-first strategy“. Thus from an inclusive and multidimensional perspective it can be also read as in essence a people-first ideology rather. In other words, the latter as a goal is to be served by the first as a tool.

As already briefly noted above, even if they sound different from each other, however, both have exactly a very same sociopolitical and philosophical meaning. Thus they are not the either A or B type of language. They are instead the both-and language, but not the other way around. They are indeed identical each other in their sociopolitical meanings. However, what most matters with regard to the above-discussed sociopolitical and philosophical concept of Songun I believe is the following explication put forth by the founder of Songun language, the Chairman Kim.

In the discussions of Songun, Kim emphatically highlights the “Juche(i.e., self-reliance) thought” which is “at the root of the Songun politics.” However, he simultaneously identifies the Juche idea as “a humancentered thought.” If so then, one can conclude the self-reliant Songun politics is essentially a ‘peoplecentered‘ politics. I think this human dimension of the Songun politics is the most crucial aspect in any discussions of Songun philosophy. For example Kim further emphasizes that human dimension in his philosophical interpretation of the Songun politics as in the following language, “It’s thoroughly a pro-people politics”.

It seems quite natural both historically and logically if the human-centered military-first revolution in DPRK had become the most important sociopolitical and philosophical foundation of the party (Workers’ Party of Korea), the military (Korea People’s Army) and the nation (DPRK). Based upon the above-discussed explications, interpretations and even some basic linguistic analyses, I am sure people could have a much better and holistic understanding of the Korea’s military-first revolution. If the nation’s top leadership from the first generation to the present hadn’t made that human-centered military-first principle as the nation’s most fundamental strategic decision, though it was one of the harshest and most difficult collective choices, I don’t think DPRK’s “our style (in other words, human-centered) of anti-imperialist, self-determined and socialist revolution” could have successfully proceeded this far.

After the liberation from a half century long Japanese colonial rule in August 1945, most, if not all the, survived Korean revolutionaries from the heroic anti-Japanese armed struggle had assumed the core military and political leadership at all levels of the party, the military, and the nation. As a rare but politically very important, crucial and great national tradition, the continuation of military-first revolution, strategically succeeded by the following generations of the leadership for 70 years is still very much true today. Not only the second generation but also even the third generation of the Korean revolution are already active and very visible in the party, the military and the nation, of course in the nation’s top leadership as well.

However, not only those people who took part in the anti-Japanese armed struggle but also many nationalistic therefore independence- and national liberation-minded intellectuals, scholars, scientists, educators, cultural artists, even landowners, conglomerates, religious people, and so on, also many of their descendants, too, have continually participated in the honorable work of nation-building processes for 70 years as well. It’s still very true, too. 

Therefore, it seems the military-first tradition is still probably the most important norm for all the crucial matters in the nation. It’s also quite remarkable that unprecedented therefore seemingly the only case as a national tradition in the world has never been negotiated for over 70 years under any circumstances whatsoever. So it’s not surprising at all if the military-first principle had been further reinforced from late 1990s during the nation’s most challenging period for about a quarter century. As well-known, it was probably the most memorable but unforgettably most challenging and greatly suffering period. People in the north called that particular unforgettable period ‘The 2nd Arduous March‘.

However, now more than ever, there seem no more doubts, disagreements, and/or disputes any longer on the above-discussed issues IF the nation’s leadership had not successively made that military-first revolution as their seemingly most difficult collective choice ever, DPRK, as the most defiant, diehard and persistent “anti-imperialist, self-determined socialist nation” in the world’s history had not been able to survive during that most challenging period in their 70 years-old history. The DPRK’s famous never-back-down tradition in the business of their non-negotiable principles such as anti-imperialism, self-determination, and socialism hasn’t been able to survive either. As everybody knows now the DPRK’s military-first revolution has been put forth not in ordinary times but during that unimaginably harshest and most challenging time period of the 1990s.

The 1990s was when the Soviets and its satellite eastern European block collapsed. It was also when China, too, was busy with its (a quarter century long!) controversial national strategy, i.e., the “Reform, Opening-door Policy.” It was the time when literally the whole world was either forcefully or voluntarily being friendly with, subjugated to, dictated by, or, if not then, even sanctioned, isolated, demonized, invaded, destroyed, robbed, raped, or massacred by the Washington-imposed “New World Order”(NWO).

Yes, it’s not anymore disputable if DPRK, as even Obama put it in January 2015, is the most isolated, the most sanctioned, the most cut-off nation on earth or not. As it’s has been that way last 70 years, yes, it’s still true. However, no matter what US has done for more than six decades, unlike the case in the south they’ve been occupying since September 8, 1945, they’ve repeatedly failed whatever they’ve wanted to do against the north. That’s true. Very true! They haven’t been able to carry out any of their anti-DPRK strategies, tactics, gimmicks, etc. Yes, for some unbelievable reasons, they’ve miserably failed in all their helplessly unsuccessful attempts. So in the history of DPRK-US confrontations, instead, it’s been the US, not the DPRK, who’s repeatedly backed down from its all sorts of imperialist aggressions against the north. Therefore it’s also neither disputable nor doubtful anymore if DPRK is the only nation on earth who’s steadfastly, defiantly, intransigently challenged and even politically, strategically and now even militarily deterred, stopped and morally defeated the once “Only Global Superpower.”

Parallel Strategy to Develop Simultaneously both Economy and the Nuclear Power”

We’d find below some logical, philosophical and political answers why we should have read that military-first language in the way as we’ve just arguably discussed above. The goal of the military-first principle isn’t the military. The self-determined, anti-imperialist and the people-centered socialist nation is the goal. So we can also comfortably conclude that the fundamental goal the military-first revolution solely aims for is the people, not the military. In order to militarily deter, stop, if needed, defeat any types of foreign military interventions, and simultaneously to ensure, guarantee and strengthen the nation’s ongoing self-reliant economic developments, the military-first principle must have become, as Chairman Kim once said in late 1990s, “the supreme politics of the nation.”

Thus, as we’ve arguably discussed above, the military-first concept shouldn’t be mechanically considered as a one-dimensional exclusive concept for the military only. But instead it should be interpreted as a multidimensional inclusive people-centered military strategy. Particularly after the Iraqi and Libya disasters, it’s now almost everybody’s rational conclusion, if that person is sane, the DPRK’s people-centered Songun revolution as a people’s collective choice, solely centered around their leadership and the party, has not only saved the nation from the madness of terribly insane therefore frantically psychopathic warmongers in Washington, Seoul, Tokyo, Tel Aviv, etc., but also enabled the nation rapidly to have become a “global nuclear superpower.”

Therefore, so it’s quite natural if the Songun politics is still the most important norm for all the major both national and international issues in DPRK. It seems like it’s the most revered norm for the entire society. Even in the third national leadership era, almost a century-long tradition of military-priority revolution hasn’t changed a bit. It instead in Kim Jong Eun era has been strategically further reinforced, restructured with a much heavier emphasis on the economic development than the past, and after the May 6-9’s 7th Party Congress firmly cemented as the nation’s non-negotiable strategy as even enshrined in the Preface of the Korea Workers’ Party Rules. Yes, no matter whether other nuclear superpowers admit it or not, as many in the world would readily agree now more than ever, the military-first revolution is believed to be the fundamental factor how and why DPRK in a short quarter century time period has become a “global nuclear superpower.” 

Since 2013, DPRK has changed their language of past nuclear strategy with a new sociopolitical, economic and strategic language, called, the “Parallel Strategy to Develop both Economy and Nuclear Power Simultaneously”(hereafter, ‘parallel strategy’). In Kim Jong Eun era’s new national strategy, too, what still runs through at the heart of the most fundamental thinking for the nation’s future is after all the military-first philosophy. DPRK has tirelessly argued their parallel strategy is the one which has made their nation not only stand on their own feet independently for both their domestic and international issues, but also ensure the nation’s security and at the same time guarantee the continued prosperity through self-reliant thereby undeterred economic development, including the nation’s most important and urgent task, i.e., the impending peaceful, self-determined reunification in near future. So it seems again it’s quite natural if they claim their parallel strategy is absolutely “the most justifiable strategy” for their nation’s future.

Therefore it looks as if almost a century-long tradition of military-first revolution still directs, guides, inspires, and shapes almost everything in DPRK. It may be presumably most visible in the party and the military. However that seems also true in almost everybody’s daily life as well. In the meantime, after more than 70 years now, it’s created also unprecedentedly a most unique character of that society, the people, the political culture, and seemingly the never-existed-socialist-system-before in the entire human history, etc. Their life style, culture, sociopolitical, economic, military system, etc. must be all quite different from the outside world.

However, if they were not different from the outside world which is absolutely controlled, dictated and/or run by the Washington’s unbelievably psychopathic racist neocon warmongers, that absolutely-isolated small nation wouldn’t be here today. They might have already gone somewhere many years back. If DPRK were no different from the absolutely-colonized (and therefore thoroughly Americanized) south, then that look-so-small-enemy in the north must have been destroyed already many, many times. Therefore it’s also quite natural if almost everything in DPRK might look quite different from outside world. Maybe there we might be able to find some answers and clues how and why DPRK has been able to not only survive for that many years of unimaginable challenges but also eventually become now, no matter who says what, a “global nuclear superpower” while their absolutely self-reliant economy has continually grown last ten some years.

Again there seem no doubts anymore that the military-first revolution still guides not only the nation’s strategic path to the future but also that of a personal life. It even looks as if that philosophy in the north directs, inspires, shapes and even challenges who he/she should be, who he/she should become, how and why he/she should act for what purpose, etc. It seems also that tradition has gained a highest moral value as well. Therefore it’s logically quite agreeable if one defines the Songun politics, as the most important principal backbone of the nation, has made DPRK now stand high in the midst of the world’s power politics as the most endurable, resilient and evermore survivable nation to handle, i.e., overcome the above-mentioned unbelievably harshest and most challenging circumstances for over 70 years.

Yes, there seem not much doubts anymore like in the past the military-first revolution must have constantly disciplined, prepared, and evermore strengthened the nation, so they would never be afraid of any outside forces from anywhere else. Now for many in the world, it’d be amazingly crystal clear that the above-argued a century-long national tradition has made DPRK able to handle all sorts of Washington’s never-ending imperialist aggressions. Now the world instead seems to have been well accustomed to watch very often, if not all the time, Washington’s frantic acts, faces, languages, promises, etc.

What must be most troublesome lately for Washington’s insane neocon warmongers is it’s now the DPRK, not the US, who constantly threatens the other end. It’s the DPRK who’s been threatening the US so often to give up their evermore failed ‘regime change’ card. The first constantly reminds the latter it’s the illusion. Kindly reminds them it won’t work. It’s a time wasting. That’s what the world watches everyday. The above-mentioned irreversibly upside down scene powerfully witnesses it’s the US who’s lost in the fight against the DPRK. Therefore now it’s the DPRK who’s been advising Washington put down their deadly arms and sit instead. They urge the Washington to sign the too-much-delayed Peace Treaty they’d supposed to sign already 65 years ago. It’s an amazingly interesting scene to watch it’s the US who’s been running away all the time from keeping all their publicly-made promises with the other end including the yet unsigned peace treaty.

What this all means about is the forcibly--that-one-unilaterally-barks-beats-demonizes-isolates-suffocates-the-other-end-all-the-time-for-70-years, in other words, the history of DPRK-US confrontations now has turned fundamentally and irreversibly upside down. It’s deadly true today. Since the January 7th, it’s even more truer. Ever since the DPRK’s first publicly carried out successful H-bomb test at the early dawn of 2016, Washington looks terribly frantic. Look so miserable! Washington looks completely lost! So all that they’ve done afterwards are all like the comic shows trying to hide their helplessness. The Obama’s infamous so-called “strategic patience”, one of the most deceptive terms used by the top government officials in the world, looks like now a “drowned rat.” To simply put it all, the DPRK’s military-first revolution or now called the parallel strategy made it happen. Today many wouldn’t attempt to deny it’s an indisputable truth today. It seems the DPRK as a whole is so sure their parallel strategy will definitely ensure for them to build a prosperous “Korean-style socialist state”(우리식 사회주의국가), based upon their non-negotiable principles of “anti-imperialist and self-determination.”

However the World Laughed at the Songun Politics at First, But Today It’s Not?

However when the new wording Songun politics was first known to the world, that quite new therefore never-heard of military jargon had been mostly dismissed. Most seemed to haven’t paid any attention. The world simply neglected it. So a DPRK’s strangely-sound new concept didn’t earn any interest or respect. Instead the world has constantly heard about all sorts of “soon-to-be-collapsing” stories. They’ve been fed like a daily meal with all sorts of horrible, terrible and crazy stories happening there in the north. So people laughing at the north in general, Songun politics in particular wouldn’t be surprising. They’ve often joked about the north with thinking “crazy guys live up there in the north.” So the soon to be collapsing theory is a perfect meat for their curses, jokes and predictions of the timing of the collapse.

wording a crazy concept. t was when the world daily talked about then already-popularized the “North Korea Collapse Theory.” They’d sort of enjoyed the predictions of timing of the collapse such as from “with 2-3 months” up to “maximum 2-3 years”.  It was when DPRK began their “2nd Arduous March” in mid 1990s-early 2000s. So most, if not all, global strategists not only in Washington but also elsewhere around the world including China, Russia, laughed at them. “No matter how North Korea claims, it won’t change anything. They’ll collapse anyway. It’s a matter of time.”

That was the most typical reaction then the world had returned to the Pyongyang leadership in late 1990s. The outside world’s unfriendly, unfavorable, and unwelcoming environment had thus set the worst working environment  for the beginning of Songun era. That type of external environment had continued for the next quarter century. Domestically, too, the environment wasn’t much different from the outside. So the “Songun ear” began its hardest and most challenging journey under/with probably the worst working environment.

Not only the collapse of former Soviet Union and its satellite Eastern socialist block but also seemingly never-ending continued natural disasters for 5 some years indeed the era of most arduous period for Koreans in the north. Whatever DPRK had argued/claimed for with that sociopolitical and military strategy, the world won’t believe it’ll be achieved. The world dismissed the goals the Songun Politics has proposed would be unachievable dreams.

have never been free from all sorts of both domestic and external challenges, doubts, laughings, cynicism cursing, condemnation, at most important strategic principle of the nation had become one of the most challenging (or “most talked about”) issues both domestically and internationally during the most arduous(i.e., challenging) time period from late 1990s to early 2000s.

Thus this short paper will seek some answers on the following three main areas: 1) how the DPRK has first of all survived such extremely unsurvivable circumstances; then 2) how they’ve been able to maintain their national unity under such unimaginable conditions for such a long period; and 3) finally, surprise to everybody, how on earth they’ve enable themselves become one of the military superpowers, solely on their own, within that short period of a quarter century during which time they’ve been constantly blockaded, sanctioned, and even threatened with nonstop nuclear attacks.

Before we dig into further elaborated answers, however, let’s first find out how the DPRK (aka, “North Korea”) officially defines the word “Songun.”

The official definition of Songun can be easily found from the nation’s official webpage. Even if the below-selectively-quoted excerpts are somewhat long, for the sake of our global viewers, I’m going to introduce the core concepts of the official definition of the Songun as much as possible. Without changing its fundamental meanings, I also tried to shorten and simplify the nation’s official long definition by editing, dropping, and/or changing some of the phrases, sentences, and words:

Songun politics is rooted in the military-priority ideology that embodies the Juche [i.e., “self-reliance”] idea. The late president Kim Il Sung is a founder of Songun ideology … of the Songun revolution. ….. [Organizing] “Down-with-Imperialism Union” by [Kim] in October, 1926 was … to crush the Japanese imperialists. The two pistols left over by his father … [and] the “Down-with-Imperialism Union” [point] out a staunch anti-imperialist and independent stand are the starting point of Songun ideology, [the] ideology of giving precedence to arms and the military.

[The late president] Kim put forward the … armed struggle as the principal line of anti-Japanese national liberation struggle … in June 19, 1930 and thereby proclaimed the birth of Songun ideology … He formed the Anti-Japanese People’s Guerrilla Army, a first revolutionary armed force on April 25, 1932 and started the anti-Japanese armed struggle, which was a historic event announcing the beginning of the Songun revolutionary leadership.

For almost 70 years starting from the mid-1920s when he embarked on the road of revolution with a high ambition for national liberation, he held fast to the line of giving priority to arms and the military and carried out the military-priority principle through. …

In the 1970s and 1980s, [Chairman Kim Jong Il] [was] determined … to work hard to lead the efforts to strengthen the army both politically, ideologically, militarily and technically. In the 1990s, there came to be a great change in [geo]political composition of the world and the balance of [global powers]. The US and the imperialist reactionary forces intensified [unprecedentedly aggressive] military maneuvers to stifle the country…. Chairman Kim, based on a scientific analysis of the changed [geopolitical] situation, declared the Songun politics [the supreme politics of the nation] ….

At the 10th Supreme People’s Assembly of the DPRK in September, 1998, … the Songun politics of the party is the main political mode of socialism which has begun in the era of President Kim and systemized in the hardest time of history [during Chairman Kim era]. Chairman Kim determined that the line of the Songun revolution be held fast to as long as [the US-led imperialist forces continue their aggressive policies against DPRK]. He has unfolded the Songun politics and defended socialism with the might of the Songun politics and advanced the independent cause of the mankind.” 

The “Soon To Be Collapsing” Theory Has Been Constantly Manufactured

The DPRK’s official definition of the word Songun seems a synthetic complex of sociopolitical and philosophical meanings based upon their (almost a century-long) anti-imperialist and self-determined struggle ever since they took arms to liberate themselves from the foreign imperialist forces in mid 1920. The last quarter century history of DPRK therefore can be characterized as in the word of ‘great suffering‘. Its entire history, challenged by endless sufferings forever, has made the world, almost everybody, assume the “North Korea will collapse” within a foreseeable future. Many in 1990s comfortably predicted its imminent collapse with some specific timings such as “2-3 months, 6 months or up to maximum 2-3 years.”

When the widely-predicted imminent collapse didn’t happen within that specific time periods, however, they didn’t give up their wishful thinking. They reclaimed the sure-collapse theory with another time frame such as the “2-3 years collapse theory.” But after all, no matter what US did last 70 years or a quarter century, Washington failed to make it(the collapse) happen. How? And why?

The simplest answer to that question is the Songun politics which has not only made the US-led international “regime change” strategy repeatedly failed to carry out its 70 years-old “anti-North policy” implemented. AS the West Germany absorbed the DDR(aka, “East Germany”) in 1990s, they also failed their “reunification by absorption” strategy.

During a YouTube interview in January 22, 2015, President Obama claimed “the North Korea ‘is the most isolated, the most sanctioned, the most cut-off nation on Earth.‘” No matter who says what and how about the 70 years-old “History of DPRK-US Confrontation,” the 64 years-delayed but now unavoidably-impending (or ‘must-be’) process of signing the Peace Treaty between the two most antagonistic nations is going to be (and will be!) interpreted as Washington’s official acknowledgement of its indisputable defeat to Pyongyang.

For people like Bruce Klingner, former CIA chief in Seoul, who is one of the most hawkish neocon voices at the Heritage Foundation, known as a (so-called) “North Korea expert”, it’d be surely sound like a crazy statement? Will see at the end who’s the one really crazy. At any rate, the Washington’s defeat to Pyongyang is not a mere defeat in an ordinary military warfare. Neither was it a defeat in a “one on one” warfare, nor a defeat from a just onetime fighting of a single war.

Rather it’s the series of multiple and ongoing defeats in the form of repeated compromises, concessions and retreats throughout the 70 years of long and deadly serious ‘total warfare’ which has taken place simultaneously in multiple fronts not only in the field of 1) military (both psychological and military) but also in the areas of 2) economy, 3) culture, 4) socio-politics, 5) science and 6) geopolitical power relations.

Indeed, in an absolute term, it’s a total warfare! This short journalistic article is a preliminary sociopolitical and historical interpretation on theWashington’s indisputable defeat to Pyongyang in the duration of 70 years which is known one of the longest wars, if not the longest warfare in the entire history of war. Though short, the author however will attempt to categorically argue and briefly answer at best on why, how and on what basis such a bold (but for many it may sound like a delusionary, right?) statement can be made.

A brief analytical interpretation on the above-mentioned 6 areas such as:

1) Economics (the largest, longest and harshest-ever global economic and financial sanctions against a single nation in the entire history of world’s economic warfare);

2) Culture (as America’s one of the most lethal weapons, i.e., its “soft power” as a strategy which is also known ‘cultural imperialism’);

3) Military (DPRK’s “military-first” policy against the psychophatic Washington  warmongers (also known as “neocon Zionist imperialists” or lately often identified with the centuries-old “Khazarian mafia cabal”);

4) Socio-politics (DPRK is often identified as the world’s most self-determined, self-reliant and super-super independent socialist system);

5) Science [DPRK’s sophisticated (both civilian and military) scientific and technological development has been acknowledged by some US nuclear scientists, high government officials and even by some senior military and intelligence officers after DPRK’s  consecutively successful tests both in nuclear and satellite/missile launching technologies ever since their first successful satellite launching in August 31, 1998]; and

6) Strategy (the rapidly changing, seesawing or fluctuating geopolitical power relations)] will be briefly discussed below.

he outside world often misunderstands the language of military-first by way of mistakenly identifying the “North Korea” with a military-centered society. So Bruce Cumings even calls DPRK a “garrison state.” In his first published in 1997 (also republished in 2005) book, Korea’s Place in the Sun: A Modern History, he identifies the DPRK as “a cloistered, family-run, xenophobic garrison state.”

I think even if he’s by far one of the most-read, -quoted and in a way respectful Korea scholars from the West, however, his analyses and interpretations are far from being flawless. His misunderstandings, though maybe unintentional, in fact are typical among most liberal (though relatively openminded than most others but still not free from being liberal) western scholars.

In order to effectively argue why his interpretations of DPRK are incorrect as in the case of a wrongful, incorrect and superficial characterization such as a “1) family-run, 2) xenophobic, and 3) garrison state,” let me take them one by one in my respectful criticism. First I’ll argue how his 3 language choices (family-run, xenophobic, and garrison) are incorrect. First and foremost his interpretive characterizations are superficial. It seems his studies on DPRK sounds very limited.

In a simple language, it seems he doesn’t have any idea how that nation has come to this far. In fact his characterization of DPRK isn’t non other than most typical issues prevalent among most western intellectuals, that is the issue of West-centered reading of the world in general, a “non-white” country in particular. Even if his second marriage to a highly-educated Korean intellectual, it seems he’s not been able to get away from those typical west-centered interpretation of the world. Some of his interpretations are also condescending like the typical Christian missionary mindset.

be specific what I am going to criticize on a couple of definitions he applied to his interpretations. However, he’s terribly incorrect. He still reads Korea from his flawed, often racist, western views. The military-first politics is implemented solely for the sake of national defense first and foremost which will then ensure nation’s sovereignty and peoples’ freedom, independence, security, happiness free from imperialists’ foreign military interventions.

It’s the US Who’s Always Failed

Throughout the history of DPRK-US confrontation, an indisputable fact is that after 70 years of EVERYTHING and ANYTHING the US-led global imperialist coalition has done against DPRK, Washington so far has failed to accomplish its hidden agenda, i.e., to occupy the North thereby they’d not only control the whole Korean peninsula but also the entire region of Northeast Asia.

No matter how the US imperialists and their paid apologists, media pundits and history books argue about the 70 years of US military occupation history in the South, Washington still hasn’t won its unilateral war against the North. In other words, the “Only Global Superpower,” the unprecedented or unheard of global empire ever existed in history, whose “over 1,000 military bases” spread around the world in more than “135 nations,” against a tiny, small, mostly mountainous (about 80% of its total area) and even dividednation. (1)

So, for most in the world, the above-argued statements that US has lost the “world’s longest war” of aggression against a same enemy DPRK wouldn’t be easily doesn’t make sense. By the way, for your some basic information, the size of DPRK is 46,528 square mile which is about the size of State of Ohio, 44,825 sq mi. Its size is the 34th in the whole United States whose total area is 3.8 million sq mi which is the 3rd/4th largest land mass in the world.

Till this very day, even if US has repeatedly committed all sorts of illegal, clandestine or covert stuff, i.e., the tens of thousands of internationally-prohibited unspeakably heinous, inhumane and vicious “crimes against humanity and war crimes” against DPRK and its 25 million population for 70 years, Washington had not been able to make even a 0.000 millimeter advance beyond the 38thParallel.

No matter how the White House, State Dept. and their faithful corporate media pundits argue, the undeniable fact is that Washington has lost its “imperial ambition” in the intentionally-prolonged therefore yet-unfinished Korean War for over 60 years. In order not to forget, no matter how weak, confused and troubled they are now, the Washington still is undisputedly the most representative power in the entire history of the five century-old Western colonial powers.

As plainly revealed in the entire 70 years history of DPRK-US confrontations, Washington has repeatedly retreated from their agendas. The first and major retreat as their first defeat the US had to make was the signing of Armistice Agreement with DPRK and PRC in July 27, 1953. No matter how their historians write about it, the Armistice Agreement was undisputedly their major retreat from their original strategic goal to occupy the North and therefore even go further to advance beyond the Yalu River, the borderline between Korea and China.

In his 2010 book “Korean War”, Prof. Cumings writes the “United States succeeded in containment [of North Korea], establishing the 2.5-mile-wide demilitarized zone that still runs through Korea’s middle, but failed miserably at the war for the north, an attempt at Communist rollback.” The fact that US, even if it’d brought its 15 vassal states under the cover of UN hat, had to sit with DPRK to talk about the ending the war which began from July 10, 1951, barely a year after they started the imperialist war of aggression all the way until 27th of July 1953, means they’d already lost the war from the early part of the Korean War.

For the sake of the record, throughout 3 years of war, US had mobilized all together about 2 million from 16 nations including its own 1.79 million US troops to the war. After the aggression of US imperialist war, more than 4 million Korean population were wiped out, more than 80% of the entire nation was destroyed.

Another information that should be noted for the sake of record is that the “U.S. dropped more bombs in Korea (635,000 tons, as well as 32,557 tons of napalm) than in the entire Pacific theater during WW II.” For example, in his harsh critique of David Halberstam’s 2007 book “The Coldest Winter” in his same book “Korean War”, he argues “there [in Halberstams’ book] is absolutely nothing on the atrocious massacres of this [Korean] war, or the American incendiary bombing campaigns” such as the “32,557 tons of napalm” dropped on Korean soil. (2)

“Cumings likens the indiscriminate American bombing of North Korea to genocide.” (3) Thus a cruel fact as a seriously challenging issue for the White House is the official acknowledgement of their defeat to Pyongyang by signing the Peace Treaty isn’t going to be a simple, mere or ordinary one. For most, if not all, the Washington’s defeat is going to be taken something as an incomprehensible event.

But eventually the cruel reality will remind them that’s the fact, the undeniable fact. It’s like impossiblity became possibility as a historical fact. The history of DPRK-US confrontation for 70 years can be summarized as simply as “the first has repeatedly succeeded while the latter has continually failed.” Even in a much shorther way, it can be said: Pyongyang won, Washington lost.

That’s why most in the world will have hard time to understand what it’s all about. Even if Washington did everything, literally they’ve done everything they could, the US as the unprecedent therefore ‘only’ global superpower in human history has failed to move the dividing line of the Korean peninsula up toward even 0.0001 mm. The defeat could be taken by many, if not most in the world, as the “Only” Global Superpower’s official acknowledgement of its final demise to an incomparably and “asymetrically look small” entity.

That’s the undeniably most distinguished fact in their history of the 70 years-long confrontations, i.e., the extremely (or unimaginably) asymtric confrontation. The extreme degree of asymetric dimension is indispensible in a logically and objectively comprehensive understanding of the Korean peoples’ forcibly continued war with US to end the yet-unfinished the Korean War for over 60 some years. Their external differences in all aspects, I mean in every aspects, are simply incomparable. The history of Washington’s continued antagonism confrontations for 70 years itself is already a defeat.

A Newly-born Nation Defeated a Great Monster-like World Empire

The “Chosun(Korea) People’s Revolutionary Army” (CPRA), organized in April, 1932 in Andu, Manchuria, with the principle of Kim’s gun-priority as its core military strategy, had not only made his legendary “anti-Japanese armed struggle” continued for a dozen years until 1945 but also, together with other anti-imperialist military forces in the region such as Soviets’ Red Army and Mao Zedung-led Chinese Revolutionary Army, finally defeated the Imperial Japan and force them to unconditionally surrender in August, 1945.

Even if DPRK was a newly-born nation founded in September, 1948, its newly-organized Korea People’s Army (KPA) in February 1948 however wasn’t in any way a brand new military force. For the KPA was a reorganized military organization as a regular army from an anti-imperialist guerrilla organization which fought against the Japanese Guandong regular army for almost 20 years.  But still the KPA at the time of war in June 1950 was poorly armed with very basic limited military hardwares, supported by a minimalist level of air and navy power.

However the KPA, together with tens of thousands of Chinese Volunteer Army, was able to successfully deter or stop the war of US-led imperialist aggressions in 1950-53. In fact, the history should use the language defeat instead deter as former (war-time) UN Commander Lt. General Mark W. Clark called himself in his memoir “the first general who lost the war” in the entire US history of war. By the way from 1801 till today the US has fought 284 wars around the world.

Of course, Koreans as a whole had to pay a very, very high price. The price was I’d like to name a Korean Holocaust. The Korean Holocaust was one of the many unknown, untold, and unrecognized Holocausts around the world. To name some well-known are Native American Holocaust, African Holocaust, Vietnamese Holocaust, Palestinian Holocaust, Armenian Holocaust, etc. The Korean Holocaust can be plainly described as in the following way: In less than 3 years  of the US-led imperialist war of aggressions, it took all together about more than 5 million innocent lives from both north and south, i.e., then about one sixth of its entire population of 30 million.

The notorious Sinchon Massacre committed by invading US troops who briefly occupied the NorthHwanghae Province of the north in late 1950 was one of the most gruesome examples why the world has to recognize the US-led imperialist war of aggressions the Korean Holocaust.

The Korean Holocaust and Other Unrecognized Holocausts

Throughout the war, there were a countless number of atrocities committed by US imperialists. Washington’s numerous “crimes against humanity” and “war crimes” should powerfully suffice why the world should recognize the Korean War as another hidden, unrecognized and forgotten human holocaust just like the above-mentioned unrecognized holocausts of hundreds of millions of Native Americans, Africans, Palestinians, etc., etc.

For example, close to the end of war, US attempted to wipe out the northern population as much as possible. This criminal agenda was put into place when US imperialists humiliatingly realized that they can’t win the war. So they had to do something or anything to damage the north as much as possible before they sign the then already-heavily negotiated Armistice Agreement.

The depopulation plan of the north was on the Washington’s hidden agendas. Complete destructions of any remaining industrial bases, social infrastructures, rice fields, schools, kindergartens, hospitals, etc. including the then largest Soophoong Hydroelectric Dam in the north were some of the major examples.

All that criminal atrocities which should have been already brought to appropriate international bodies such as the Hague-based International Criminal Court of Justice. However so far that sort of global justice in the present world’s power politics hasn’t happened yet. As expected, those terribly apparent ‘war crimes‘ and ‘crimes against humanity‘ the US imperialists committed haven’t been brought to justice yet.

Washington’s hidden agenda such as the depopulation strategy of the northern population as low as possible didn’t stop there however.  As many Korea experts and scholars have already abundantly written on this issue, then Washington had another hidden agenda. It was indeed another viciously criminal strategy as if that was their last resort to make their hidden agenda to be accomplished at any cost.

It was the nuclear card. Close to the end of the war, while engaging with the North working on the ongoing Armistice Agreement negotiations then about for almost two years, on the other hand, from behind the scene, Washington had made repeated threats to drop nuclear bombs in the north. In order to further scare a more number of population as much as possible, Washington even dropped ‘dummy nuclear bombs.’ It’s another well-known war crimes Washington willfully but frantically committed that they used some of internationally-prohibited weapons of mass destruction, such as the ‘biological and chemical weapons.’

This sort of not-trustworthy-acts or habitually repeated betrayal acts isn’t anything new to the more than 500 years old history of Conquest of Americas. Ever since the Spaniards, i.e., the “money- and gold-hungry Europeans”(as in the language of Howard Zinn’s Peoples History of United States of America) first arrived in today’s Cuban and Bahama islands in the Caribbean sea, what all they have endlessly repeated was to lie, betray, rob, rape, destroy, slaughter, enslave and colonize the entire central, north, south American continents. For example, according to that criminal history of 500 years old colonization of Americas, the newly-arrived Christian whites from the West started with the Spaniards, Portuguese, Dutch, French, British, etc., those European imperialists broke more than 600 some treaties, i.e., broke nearly every treaty they’d signed with the Native Americans.

Again as expected, a more number of people would had run away frantically from the north. And Washington was terribly right. Their hidden depopulation agenda did work great. Ever since the temporary pause of the war in July 1953, the size of the population of the north has been about a half of that of the south all along to this day.

As one of the worst symbols of human tragedy is the separation of loved family members by force and will. What Washington imperialists created then was the 70 years-continued saga of 10 million divided family members’ tragedy. It was one of the most naked, unavoidable, and telltale proofs to uncover Washington’s ‘crimes against humanity and war crimes’numerously committed during the war. In fact Washington’s nuclear war threats began as early as in November, 1950. It should be noted it began only less than half a year after they started the war of aggressions in June 25, 1950.

The degree of destruction in the north was beyond imagination. It was complete. Period! The human loss in the north was unspeakably immense. It wiped out about one third of the northern population. The imperialists’ war of [white] racism turned the whole nation in general, the North in particular into a complete ruin. Major cities like Pyongyang turned into just like the old stone age. After signing of the Armistice Agreement in July 1953, that was the very reason why Washington boastfully dared to predict the North won’t be able to rebuild it from the ashes at least “next 100 years.” The ashes they meant wasn’t untrue. It’s true. There weren’t any buildings, not even a single building left intact in major cities in the north, most specifically Pyongyang, the Capital City of DPRK, and of course other major industrialized cities like Hamhung, Wonsan, etc. in the east coast.

Korea was invaded by the international forces led by then the only nuclear power which, fully armed with the then most sophisticated military hardwares such as napalm and other biological, chemical weapons of mass destruction. So it won’t be a much exaggerated description of the Korean War, as most Korea scholars like Bruce Cumings, John McCormick, together with globally recognized geopolitical (and Korea) issues experts like Michel Chossudovsky, Christopher Black, Finian Cunningham, Stephen Gowans, Andre Vltchek, and even a worldwide-known great painter Pablo Picaso, it was one of the most criminal, genocidal, and racist wars of aggression. Many have argued a war like the Korean War has never existed in the world history of large scale international war of aggressions. Thus a claim that the Korean War should be remembered as one of the worst human holocausts, together with the above-mentioned other holocausts, in the world history isn’t much exaggerated or bloated.

The Never-Ending Korea(DPRK)-US Confrontations for Over 70 Years Now

However, no matter how badly Washington destroyed, slaughtered and ruined the north, the US and its 15 other vassal states had miserably failed to occupy the other half of Korean peninsula even if they’d done everything possible to accomplish their imperialist goals and agendas. Therefore many believe the gun-priority policy made this impossible miracle-like story possible. So one can comfortably conclude Kim’s armed revolution guided by the gun-priority principle in 1920s-40s was the very foundation of the newly-invented wording Songun (military-first) Politics of 1990s.

Ever since the inception of this new sociopolitical expression Songun in 1990s, there must have been thousands of scholarly papers not only in Korean language but also in many other languages including Chinese, English, Russian, etc. to work on probably further deepened theorization of the said concept. This short paper however won’t pay much attention on those already-heavily studied theoretic aspects of the Songun concept but more on its geopolitical, military and strategic aspects within the modern historical context of never-ending Korea(DPRK)-US confrontations for over 70 years now.

It’ll attempt to explore the following three major aspects of the Songun Politics with regard to the evermore fluctuating, tumultuous and rapidly changing geopolitical power relations of the early 21st century: 1) its practical greatness in human history; 2) its sociopolitical significance; and 3) its absolutely non-negotiable necessity as prerequisite in order not only to survive but also defeatthe US-led 70 years-old anti-North imperialist aggressions centered around the ‘regime change” strategy militarily.

The paper however will focus on a specific period of last quarter century during which time literally the whole world knelt down before the neocon imperialists’ New World Order(NWO). As well-known, the imperial NWO, also known as the “Washington Consensus” has been forcibly imposed upon against the whole world. It’s come in the name of so-called “Neoliberalism” together with a fancy but deceptive language like the “Globalization.” After all the forceful and deceptive imposition of neoliberal economic policy for more than 30 some years now, the whole globe has become a world of “0.1% vs. 99.9%.”

Michel Chossudovsky conceptually identified that treacherous situation as “Globalization of Poverty.” Indeed, under the deceptive Washington Consensus, the poverty has become globalized. No matter how the world calls or defines, under the NWO which has been arbitrarily, dictatorially, forcibly imposed upon the whole world in the name of the almost holy but deceptive mantra of neoliberal globalization, the entire world has been continually bleeding, dying, and being destroyed by the ruthlessly dictatorial and the imperial “Only Global Superpower”(OGS).

While the Whole World Knelt Down, DPRK Was the Only Nation Stood on Its Own Feet

Ever since the collapse of entire Soviet system and its satellite Eastern ‘socialist’ block in early 1990s, the DPRK has been for sure undisputedly the only nation on earth who’s defiantly and steadfastly refused to go subservient to or kneel down before the unprecedented scale of constant economic blockades, financial sanctions, and nuclear war threats from the 21st Century Empire as the chief military and economic enforcer of the NWO. However, inconceivably, it’s always the US who has miserably and repeatedly failed in its never-ending imperial aggressions of all sorts against DPRK. Indeed. it’s inconceivable. Unbelievable.

So many in the world have repeatedly asked how come on earth that tiny, small, and “extremely poor” nation has survived. They’ve curiously questioned indeed how come that “soon-to-be-collapsing” nation hasn’t collapsed yet. The world has challenged how on earth that sort of such an inconceivable, inexplicable therefore unbelievable thing could happen. Yes, true, many in the world have seriously questioned themselves how that asymmetrically so small nation, faced with constant threats from the incomparably humongous, gigantic and monstrous counterpart for 70 years, has not only survived but also deterred, in fact, repeatedly defeated the nonstop US imperialist aggressions.

The answer to that most unfavorable curiosities and cynical questions but some in unbelievable and inexplicable wonders with regard to the history of 70 years-old Korea-US confrontationshowever is simple. It seems it’s not complicated at all. I think the Songun Politics is the right answer. It’s simple and clear. Particularly after the Iraq and Libya cases, it’s become much more clearer. Yes, the answer has become much more clearer. So, now more than ever, its’ a well-known, also a well-recognized thereby undisputed conclusion that the Military-First Politics is the one which has made DPRK to deal with US imperialist aggressions possible.

not only function as a sovereign nation and maintain its basic sociopolitical and legal order even under unimaginably worst living conditions probably the humanity may not have known yet in its entire history, but also has enabled that tiny small nation deal with all sorts of nonstop lies in the form of demonization campaign to further isolate that nation from the international community, endure extreme degrees of global scale of economic blockades and financial sanctions, and repeatedly defeat the endless nuclear war threats for over 60 some years.

Even if the entire population had to suffer immeasurably for their collective choice as their communal decision to live without loosing their sense of national and human dignity, honor, and cause for self-determination and independence, the Songun Politics has been fully supported by the majority of its 25 million population. What we’ve talked above all together has however created another beautiful human miracle, called, the miracle of “ill-sim-dhan-gyoul”(일심단결: literally meaning in English, a symbiotically harmonious unity in the form of “all in one, one in all” spirit).

That unprecedented form of highest degree of communal unity(i.e., all in one, one in all) Koreans in the North were able to exercise in their daily life and work has essentially enabled DPRK to defeat all sorts of both domestic and foreign challenges. The challenges for Koreans in the North have come in many different forms such as mostly an extreme degree of hunger and cold caused mainly by severe lack of food and energy. The hunger and lack of food and energy was further intensified by the complete cut off from the international community for its normal economic and trade activities.

The worst form of challenges have mainly come from the daily demonization, defamation, degradation campaigns against the people in the North in general, the leadership in particular all year around accompanied by shamelessly vicious geopolitical division/isolation/separation tactics and devilish financial gimmicks that have been evermore applied/deployed/employed by the US-led imperialist(in other words, satanic) forces. Most of the above-mentioned manufactured challenges have come from often, if not all the time, the Washington’s worst vassal states in Northeast Asia region, such as, as well-known, South Korea and Japan.

But, no matter how, after about 20 to 30 years of Songun policy, it’s eventually made this small tiny nation of 25 million successfully become one of the few global nuclear superpowers. It’s a miracle. An unbelievable miracle. Many in the anti-DPRK camp wouldn’t like to believe. It doesn’t matter if it’s true or not. They won’t simply accept the truth as it is. They’ll most likely deny the truth all the way through until they fall into their own self-made traps.

Indeed it’s hardly a believable fact. Thus it’s called a miracle. Let’s further dig into this miracle story. The DPRK’s nuclear capabilities are now believed to be fully armed with already-successfully-tested H-bombs, strategic submarine-launched ICBMs, EMPs, etc., etc. The North has repeatedly claimed they’ve already achieved highest levels of manufacturing diversified nuclear weapons by saying “miniaturized, diversified, …”.

Thus one can now comfortably argue the Songun Politics is the very reason why US has repeatedly failed to erase its most asymmetrical but most diehard and its staunchest enemy from the face of the earth. Rather unbelievably it was always the US who’s been endlessly defeated by its incomparably or unbelievably look-small enemy, asymmetrically by size most tiny and economically poor enemy but its archest and most difficult enemy US has never been able to deal with.

Thus it’s surely a mystery. People can hardly deny its miraculousness. No, indeed, there weren’t many who’d easily deny the miraculous aspect of nonstop Korea-US confrontations for 70 years now. Yes, indeed, it’s a mystery. Probably a most unimaginable mystery in human history. For it’s unthinkable, unbelievable therefore for many it’s after all unacceptable. For it’s hardly conclusive. So it isn’t something readily agreeable.

For it’s hardly acceptable. It’s therefore something that should be denied once for all. That’s what Washington has dreamt of for over 65 years after their first unbelievable defeat that they didn’t want to admit from its well-planned war of invasion in 1950-53. But, no matter what, no matter how, and as a matter of fact, it’s now undeniably true. It’s now an indisputable fact. So it can’t be deniable. Not anymore. Not anymore undeniable. So indisputable anymore.

Even if it wants, it’s now impossible. Particularly after another badly unwanted failure of 2016 (so-called) “Key Resolve-Foal Eagle 16″, i.e., the unprecedentedly most aggressive, most arrogant, and most imperialist in nature of its planned “all-out nuclear war” drills in Korean peninsula, it’s NOT anymore a disputable fact. It’s NOW an unavoidable historical fact that US has never been able to carry out its will, again as in the case of 2016’s most humiliated failure. No, it’s NOT anymore an avoidable or deniable fact that Washington’s publicly stated goal for 70 years to destroy its most arch enemy has been again miserably failed. Alas, therefore, it’s NOW an indisputable fact before the entire world.

No matter how many nations including China and Russia have joined the US-led economic blockades to suffocate, no matter how many international institutions and most UN-affiliated international bodies like the UN (so-called) “Human Rights” Commission have gathered together to demonize, isolate, and then dance with the tune of imperialist forces, no matter how many Washington-controlled central banks around the world together with the IMF and the World Bank have participated in the US-led financial sanctions, no matter how many nations’ military forces have joined the US-led imperialist nuclear war drills threatening to annihilate a sovereign nation, i.e., the only nation of the most arch anti-imperialist, self-determined and socialist nation on earth, whatever they have done for 60 some years, they all have miserably failed, too.

The culmination of all that 70 years of US-led “regime change” goals carried out by all the above-mentioned strategies, tactics, gimmicks, etc., have finally come in March and April, 2016, right before the historic opening of the 7th Congress of Korea Workers Party in Pyongyang. It came with all sorts of globally-boasted WMDs. It brought the unprecedentedly largest and most awesome and sophisticated nuclear weapons such as B-2 Strategic Bombers, B-52H Strategic Bombers, F-22 Stealth Bombers, the Ohio-class (known as the most sophisticated) nuclear-powered strategic submarines such as the Mississippi, 2 nuclear-powered aircraft-carrier fleets, etc. The unprecedentedly most aggressive, frantic and imperialist as its last resort in the form of “all-out nuclear war” drills in 2016 however again miserably failed. The strategic downfall of American Empire came with that 2016’s indisputable failure.

The Songun is the source of this unbelievable mystery. It’s the one that’s made the Washington’s imperialist greeds shamefully naked. Its stated goals to suffocate its never-back-down enemy for 70 years have been helplessly humiliated. The US-led anti-DPRK international forces have been littered around the world.

Of course, for the last quarter century of Songun period, the entire 25 million population of the North had immensely suffered from the shortage of almost everything, particularly food and energy. They had to pay the unimaginably high price for them to choose the path of Songun Politics.

The world is out of touch with regard to the inexplicable degrees of suffering the Koreans in the North had to endure for at least a quarter century during the entire Songun era.


The US-led global economic blockades and financial  sanctions for over 60 some years is unprecedented in human history. Especially, since 1990s after the former Soviet Union collapsed and its satellite Eastern European socialist block as a whole had disappeared, the degree of global economic and financial sanctions and blockades has become literally the whole globe!

But ever since even China and Russia have joined the US and its vassal states of the West in their joint UNSC-led sanctions and blockades against DPRK with regard to the US-instigated so-called the “Nuclear Issues,” the US-led economic and financial sanctions and blockades have become literally the scale of whole global for 0ver 20 some years.

According to Wikipedia, the US GDP is $17,419 trillion US Dollars (2014), while the DPRK’s 15,4 billion (2013). The mere, simple comparison of their economic sizes is even unnecessary. US population is about 322 million as of 2015. DPRK population is about 25 million. US land size, the 3rd in its rank in the world, is about 3,800,000 sq mi, while that of DPRK as already mentioned above is about 46,000 sq mi.


The war of ‘Cultural Imperialism’ is the most lethal and effective weapon the US/Western colonialists and imperialists still have, use and wield. On January 22nd, Obama declared a war of cultural imperialism against DPRK to whom he as US president publicly acknowledged its sociopolitical and military defeat.

However, right after that historic pronouncement, the US president, as if he lost temper or was trying to save his face, declared the US will destroy their arch enemy from within inside by their infamous “soft power” strategy using such as “internet, Hollywood movies, and so on.”


Like the case of economy, it’s also unnecessary to try a simple mere comparison of two nations of military powers. The military dimension in the history of DPRK-US confrontation is the most distinguished aspect in terms of their extremely asymmetric backgrounds. Here, again, this asymmetric scheme brings the “impossibility turns to possibility” miracle.

After the war in July 1953, the whole nation in the North was literally in ruin from the nonstop 3 yearlong “carpet bombings.”

For example, in case of Pyongyang, there were 400,000 population during the war. The US dropped more than 400,000 bombs upon the city of Pyongyang. This each bomb per person history reveals the US atrocity against Koreans.


The 3 successful both nuclear and missile/satellite launching tests since August 1998 seems to have undoubtedly cemented the place of DPRK scientifically one of the most developed nations on earth. With its first successful test fire from submarine, the level of DPRK’s scientific technology seems to have been further elevated to the upper 5 global nuclear power club.


The self-reliance, self-determination, self-defense, independence are like the code words for the Koreans in the north. There is a saying: “They’ll die for the right to self-determination.” They’ll never knell down before the imperialists. Instead they’ll fight for independence till they die.

In September 9, 1948, DPRK built their nation upon the “people-oriented socialist principles.” The word Juche (self-reliance) is identified with the most sacred word Kim Il Sung, the founding father of DPRK following his over 20 years of diehard anti-Japanese guerilla warfare.

Geopolitical Power Relations

What’d have been the most critical aspect in the failed US imperialist war of aggression against DPRK is the area of strategy. The Signing of Peace Treaty between DPRK and US: Washington’s Official Acknowledgment of Defeat to Pyongyang. In human history everything is decided by the logic of power. This truth has never changed throughout human history. The power decides which is right, which is wrong. The so-called ‘history’ is written by the power. The power is the authors of almost all of the written histories ever recorded. Whoever sits in the power makes the roads.

The concept of DPRK’s “Songun” which directly means “military first” is one of the most straightforward language which tells the power decides everything in human life. Power decides a nation’s relations to other nations. No matter how big, rich, many nation’s population, wealth, cultures are, if that nation is out of self-reliant, independent and self-determined power to defend themselves from outside forces, all that values and resources are meaningless.

“Despite Pyongyang’s unabated nuclear ambitions, Seoul should seek to craft an “exit strategy” to defuse cross-border tension away from the current focus on sanctions and pressure, said Johan Galtung, founder of the Peace Research Institute Oslo. Galtung noted that the South Korean Park Geun-hye government, with its hard-line stance against the North, should now take a different approach.

“I think it is more Washington’s rather than Seoul’s policy, hence no exit strategy,” the prominent scholar said. “The U.S. policy from 1953 on has been to hope for and stimulate a DPRK (North Korea) collapse, hugely underestimating their strength. DPRK has demanded a peace treaty, normal relations, and a nuclear free Korean Peninsula, and has run out of patience.”

On the Korean reunification, Galtung has suggested a confederation of the two states as a first step, followed by a federation and eventually complete incorporation as a neutral power. Despite the evolving security landscape surrounding the peninsula, he said he still believes in the idea. “I stand by unifying the nation with open borders and equitable cooperation, for the latter DPRK has to develop more, as they will,” he said. “I stand by first confederation of the two states, then federation, then possibly one state in the future, not based on any collapse — not a good base as we can see from Germany. And I stand by neutrality for a peninsula in the intense power field of four major powers.” 2016.06.17 [출처: 중앙일보]

Yohan Galtung: “… the [so-called] ‘North Korea Collapse Theory’ will be collapsed before [if] the “North Korea” as a nation [ever does so]…” “Ever since 1812 until 1953, the United States had won all the wars it fought. However, for the first time, it didn’t win the war it fought against the newly-born nation, i.e., Democratic People’s Republic of Korea(DPRK). The US lost its war to DPRK in 1950-53. The US can’t stand with that humiliated historical fact in which they didn’t win the war. BTW from 1801 to today the US has endlessly engaged more than 284 times in the wars around the world.”

The impending process of signing of Peace Treaty between DPRK and US is something like the dream come true. Sooner or later this dream may indeed come true. The evermore developed DPRK’s military technology and self-reliant economic development seems to have made US out of further choices but to respond accordingly.


Conclusive remarks


The UNSC-led global economic blockades, financial sanctions, and ongoing nuclear war games agains the North has made DPRK stand high at the center of the world’s geopolitics. All that fundamentally unfair, unjust and singled out aggressions for several decades have paradoxically evermore strengthened made DPRK a nation of absolutely self-reliant in all aspects of society as an independent nation not only to survive but also economically viable and rapidly-growing nation.








  • Garner, Dwight. “Carpet-Bombing Falsehoods about a War That’s Little Understood.” New York Times. July 21, 2010. Accessed: August 8, 2013.


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