U.S.-China Relations: Some Secret History and My Father’s Memories II


Hidden History Alive Within the Present

Quotations from “Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II (updated edition), by William Blum, Common Courage Press, Monroe, Maine, 2004 and other primary and secondary sources

1.”But that war was over. The Americans were now to have their day in every corner of the world. The ink on the Japanese surrender treaty was hardly dry when the United States began to use the Japanese soldiers still in China alongside American troops in a joint effort against the Chinese communists. (In the Philippines and in Greece, as we shall see, the U.S. did not even wait for the war to end before subordinating the struggle against Japan and Germany to the anti-communist crusade.)

2.The communists in China had worked closely with the American military during the war, providing important intelligence about Japanese occupiers, rescuing and caring for downed U.S. airmen. [David Barrett, “Dixie Mission: The U.S. Army Observer Group in Yenan, 1944; Center for Chinese Studies, University of California, Berkeley, 1970; passim: R. Harris Smith, “OSS: The Secret History of America’s First CIA, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1972, pp. 262-3; New York Times, 19 December, 1945, p. 24] But no matter. Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek would be Washington’s man. The Office of Strategic Services (OSS, forerunner of the CIA) estimated that the bulk of Chiang’s military effort had been directed against the communists rather than the Japanese. He had also done his best to block the cooperation between the Reds and the Americans. Now his army contained Japanese units and his regime was full of officials who had collaborated with the Japanese and served in their puppet government. [Smith, op. cit, p. 259-82; New York Times, 19 December 1945, p. 2] But no matter. The Generalissimo was as anti-communist as they come. Moreover, he was a born American client. His forces would be properly trained and equipped to do battle with the men of Mao Tse-tung and Chou En-lai.”

3.President Truman was up front about what he described as “using the Japanese to hold off the communists”:

“It was perfectly clear to us that if we told the Japanese to lay down their arms immediately and march to the seaboard, the entire country would be taken over by the communists. We therefore had to take the unusual step of using the enemy as a garrison until we could airlift Chinese National [Chiang’s] troops to South China and send Marines to guard the seaports.” (William Blum p. 21 cited [Harry S. Truman, Memoires, Vol. II, “Years of Trial and Hope” 1946-53, Great Britain, p. 66])

4.“The deployment of American Marines had swift and dramatic results. Two weeks after the end of the war, Peking was surrounded by communist forces. Only the arrival of the Marines in the city prevented the Reds from taking it over. And while Mao’s forces were pushing into Shanghai’s suburbs, US transport planes dropped Chiang’s troops in to seize the city.” [D.F. Flemming, “The Cold War and its Origins, 1917-1960, New York, 1961, p. 570, passim Blum, p. 39]

5.“In a scramble to get to key centers and ports before the communists, the U.S. transported between 400,000 and 500,000 Nationalist troops by ship and plane all over the vastness of China and Manchuria, places they could have never reached otherwise.

6.As the civil war heated up, the 50,000 Marines sent by Truman were used to guard railway lines, coal mines, ports, bridges and other strategic sites. Inevitably, they became involved in the fighting, sustaining dozens, if not hundreds in the casualties. U.S. troops, the communists charged, attacked areas controlled by the Reds, directly opened fire on them, arrested military officers, and disarmed soldiers. [New York Times, September-December, 1945, passim Barbara W. Tuchman, “Stillwell and the American Experience in China 1911-45, New York, 1972, pp 666-77] The Americans found themselves blasting a small Chinese village ‘unmercifully’, wrote a Marine to his congressman, not knowing how many innocent people were slaughtered.” [Congressional Record, Appendix, Vol. 92, part 9, 24 January 1946, letter to Congressman Hugh de Lacy of Washington State]

7.“United States planes regularly made reconnaissance flights over communist territory to scout the position of their forces. The communists claimed that American planes frequently strafed and bombed their troops and in one instance machine-gunned a communist-held town.” [New York Times, 6 November 1945, p.1; 9 December 1945, p. 2] To what extent these attacks were carried out by US airmen is not known. “ [p. 40]

8.“There were, however, American survivors in some of the many crashes of the United States aircraft. Surprisingly, the Reds continued to rescue them, tend to their wounds, and return them to US bases. It may be difficult to appreciate now, but at this time the mystique and the myth of ‘America’ still gripped the imagination of people all over the world, and the Reds helped to rescue scores of American flyers and had transported them through Japanese lines to safety. ‘The Communists’ wrote the New York Times ‘did not lose one airman under their protection. They made a point of never accepting rewards for saving American airmen.’ “ [New York Times, 9 December 1945, p.24; 26 December 1945, p.5]

9.“When 1946 arrived, about 100,000 American military personnel were still in China still supporting Chiang. The official United States explanation for the presence of its military was that they were there to disarm and repatriate the Japanese. Though this task was carried out eventually, it was secondary to the military’s political function, as Truman’s statement cited above makes abundantly clear.”

10.“The American soldiers in China began to protest about not being sent home, a complaint echoed around the world by other GIs kept overseas for political (usually anti-communist) purposes. ‘They ask me too, why they’re here’, said a Marine lieutenant in China at Christmas time, 1945. ‘As an officer, I am supposed to tell them, but you can’t tell a man he’s here to disarm the Japanese when he’s guarding the same railway with [armed] Japanese’. “ [New York Times, 26 December 1945, p. 5]

11.Strangely enough, the United States attempted to mediate in the civil war; this, while being an active, powerful participant on one side. In January 1946, President Truman, apparently recognizing that it was either compromise with the communists or see all of China fall under their sway, sent General George Marshall to try to arrange a cease-fire and some kind of unspecified coalition government. While some temporary success was achieved in an on-and-off truce, the idea of a coalition government was doomed to failure as unlikely as a marriage between the Czar and the Bolsheviks. As the historian D.F. Fleming has pointed out, ‘One cannot unite a dying oligarchy with a rising revolution’.” [Fleming op cit p. 587]

12.Not until early 1947 did the United States begin to withdraw some of its military forces, although aid and support to the Chiang government continued in one form or another long afterward. At about this time, the Flying Tigers began to operate. The legendary American air squadron under the leadership of General Claire Chennault had fought for the Chinese against the Japanese before and during the world war. Now Chennault, Chiang’s former air force advisor, had reactivated the squadron (under the name CAT) and its pilots-of-fortune soon found themselves in the thick of the fray, flying endless supply missions to Nationalist cities under siege, dodging communist shell bursts to airlift food, ammunition, and supplies of all kinds, or to rescue the wounded. [Christopher Robbins, “Air America” (U.S., 1979, pp. 46-57); Victor Marchetti and John Marks “The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence”, N.Y. 1975, p 149] Technically, CAT was a private airline hired by the Chiang government, but before the civil war came to an end, the airline had formally interlocked with the CIA to become the first unit in the Agency’s sprawling empire-to-be, best known for the Air America line.”

13.By 1949, United States aid to the Nationalists since the war amounted to almost $2 billion in cash and $1 billion worth of military hardware; 39 Nationalist army divisions had been trained and equipped. [“Hearings held in executive session before the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee during 1949-50: Economic Assistance to China and Korea, 1949-50”, testimony of Dean Acheson, p. 23;made public January 1974 as part of the Historical series] Yet the Chiang dynasty was collapsing all around in bits and pieces. It has not only been the onslaught of Chiang’s communist foes, but the hostility of the Chinese people at large to his tyranny, his wanton cruelty, and the extraordinary corruption and decadence of his entire bureaucratic and social system. By contrast, the large areas under communist administration were models of honesty, progress, and fairness; entire divisions of the Generalissimo’s forces defected to the communists. American political and military leaders had no illusions about the nature and quality of Chiang’s rule. The Nationalist forces, said General David Barr, head of the U.S. Military Mission in China, were under ‘the world’s worst leadership’. “ [Tuchman, op cit. p. 676]

14.“The Generalissimo, his cohorts and soldiers fled to the offshore island of Taiwan (Formosa). They had prepared their entry two years earlier by terrorizing the islanders into submission—a massacre which took the lives of as many as 28,000 people [see Scott Anderson and Jon Lee Anderson, “Inside the League”, N.Y. 1986, pp 47-9 citing prominent American Generals and State Dept. officials in Taiwan at the time. See also D.F. Fleming, p. 578-9; In 1992 the Taiwan government admitted that its army had killed an estimated 18,000 to 28,000 native-born Taiwanese in the 1947 massacre (“Los Angeles Times”, February 24, 1992)] Prior to the Nationalists’ escape to the island, the US government entertained no doubts that Taiwan was a part of China. Afterward, uncertainty began to creep into the minds of Washington officials. The crisis was resolved in a remarkably simple manner: the US agreed with Chiang that the proper way to view the situation was not that Taiwan belonged to China, but that Taiwan was China. And so it was called.” [Blum p. 23]

15.“Yet short of an all-out invasion of the country by large numbers of American troops, it is difficult to see what more the US government could have done to prevent Chiang’s downfall. Even after Chiang fled to Taiwan, the United States pursued a campaign of relentless assaults against the communist government, despite a request from Chou En-lai for aid and friendship. The Red leader saw no practical or ideological bar to this. [“Foreign Relations of the United States, 1949, Vol. VIII, “The Far East: China”, US Government Printing Office, Washington, 1978, passim between pp. 357 and 399; 768, 779-80; publication of this volume of the US State Dept. series was held up precisely because it contained the reports about Chou En-lai’s request (“San Francisco Chronicle”, 27 September, 1978, p. F-1)] Instead the United States evidently conspired to assassinate Chou on several occasions.” [ “The Guardian, London, 24 August 1985; Blum p. 394]

16.“Many Nationalist soldiers had taken refuge in northern Burma in the great exodus of 1949, much to the displeasure of the Burmese Government. There, the CIA began to regroup this stateless army into a fighting force, and during the early 1950s a number of large-and-small-scale incursions into China were carried out. In one instance, in April 1951, a few thousand troops, accompanied by CIA advisors and supplied from air drops by American C-46s and C-47s, crossed the border into China’s Yunnan province, but they were driven back by the communists in less than a week. The casualties were high and included several CIA advisors who lost their lives. Another raid that summer took the invaders 65 miles into China where they reportedly held a 100-mile-long strip of territory.” [Blum pp. 23-24]

17.“While the attacks continued intermittently, the CIA proceeded to build up the force’s capabilities: American engineers arrived to help construct and expand airstrips in Burma, fresh troops were flown in from Taiwan, other troops were recruited from among the Burmese hill tribes, CIA air squadrons were brought in for logistical services, and enormous quantities of American heavy arms were ferried in. Much of the supply of men and equipment came in via nearby Thailand.” [Blum p. 24]

18.“The army soon stood at more than 10,000 men. By the end of 1952, Taiwan claimed that 41,000 communist troops had been killed and more than 3,000 wounded. The figures were most likely exaggerated, but even if not, it was clear that the raids would not lead to Chiang’s triumphant return to the mainland—although this was not their sole purpose. On the Chinese border two greater battles were raging: in Korea and Vietnam. It was the hope of the United States to force the Chinese to divert troops and military resources away from these areas [note and also away from overall development and socialist construction in general] The infant People’s Republic of China was undergoing a terrible test.” [Blum, p. 24]

19.“In between raids on China, the ‘Chinats’ (as distinguished from the ‘Chicoms’) found time to clash frequently with the Burmese troops, indulge in banditry, and become the opium barons of the Golden Triangle, that slice of land encompassing parts of Burma, Laos and Thailand which was the world’s largest source of opium and heroin. CIA pilots flew the stuff all over, to secure the cooperation of those in Thailand who were important to the military operation, as a favor to their Nationalist clients, perhaps even for the money, and ironically, to serve as cover for their more illicit activities.” [Blum, p 24]

20.“The Chinats in Burma kept up their harassment of the Chicoms until 1961 and the CIA continued to supply them militarily, but at some point the Agency began to phase itself out of a more direct involvement. When the CIA, in response to repeated protests by the Burmese Government to the United States and the United Nations, put pressure on the Chinats to leave Burma, Chiang responded by threatening to expose the Agency’s covert support of his troops there. At an earlier stage, the CIA had entertained the hope that the Chinese could be provoked into attacking Burma, thereby forcing the strictly neutral Burmese to seek salvation in the Western camp. [New York Times, 25 April 1966, p. 20] In January 1961, the Chinese did just that, but as part of a combined force with the Burmese to overwhelm the Nationalists’ main base and mark ‘finis’ to their Burmese adventure. Burma subsequently renounced American aid and moved closer to Peking. [David Wise and Thomas Ross, “The Invisible Government”, N.Y. 1965 pb edition, pp. 138-44; Joseph B. Smith “Portrait of a Cold Warrior”, N.Y. 1976, pp. 77-8; “New York Times”, 28, July 1951; 28 December, 1951; 22 February 1952; 8 April 1952; 30 December 1952, p. 3; opium in Robbins, op cit. pp. 84-7; Blum, op cit pp. 394]. For5 many of the Chinats, unemployment was short-lived. They soon signed up with the CIA again; this time to fight with the Agency’s grand army in Laos.” [Blum, op cit. p. 24]

21.“Burma was not the only jumping-off site for CIA organized raids into China. Several islands within about five miles of the Chinese coast, particularly Quemoy and Matsu, were used as bases for hit-and-run attacks, often in battalion strength, for occasional bombing forays and to blockade mainland ports. Chiang was ‘brutally pressured’ by the US to build his troops on the islands beginning around 1953 as a demonstration of Washington’s new policy of ‘unleashing’ him.” [Blum, op cit. p. 24; see also “Washington Post”, 20 August 1958, Joseph Alsop, a columnist, former staff officer under Chennault, and CIA asset, along with brother Stewart Alsop, covertly in media, was well connected with the Taiwan regime; see Carl Bernstein, “The CIA and the Media”, in “Rolling Stone” magazine, 20 October 1977]

22.“The Chinese retaliated several times with heavy artillery attacks on Quemoy, on one occasion killing two American military officers. The prospect of an escalated war led the US later to have second thoughts and to ask Chiang to abandon the islands, but then he refused. The suggestion has often been put forward that Chiang’s design was to embroil the United States in just such a war as one means of returning to the mainland.” [Blum, op cit p. 25; Quemoy and Matsu, Stewart Alsop; “The Story Behind Quemoy: How We Drifted Close to War”, “Saturday Evening Post”, 13 December 1958, p.26; Andrew Tully, “CIA: The Inside Story”, N.Y. 1962, pp. 162-5; D.F. Fleming, op cit, pp 930-1; Wise and Ross, op. cit pp. 116; “New York Times”, 27, April 1966, p. 28]

23.“Many incursions into China were made by smaller, commando-type teams air-dropped in for intelligence and sabotage purposes. In November 1952, two CIA officers, John Downy and Richard Fecteau, who had been engaged in flying these teams in and dropping supplies to them, were shot down and captured by the communists. Two years passed before Perking announced the capture and sentencing of the two men. The State Department broke its own two-year silence with indignation, claiming that the two men had been civilian employees of the US Department of the Army in Japan who were presumed lost on a flight from Korea to Japan. ‘How they came into the hands of the Chinese Communists is unknown to the United States…the continued wrongful detention of these American citizens furnishes further proof of the Chinese Communist regime’s disregard for accepted practices of international conduct.’ “[Blum, op cit p. 25; Wise and Ross, op cit. p. 116] … “Fecteau was released in December 1971, shortly before President Nixon’s trip to China; Downey was not freed until March 1973, soon after Nixon publicly acknowledged him to be a CIA officer.” [Blum, op cit. p. 25]

24.“The Peking announcement in 1954 also revealed that eleven American airmen had been shot down over China in January 1953 while on a mission that had as its purpose the ‘airdrop of special agents into China and the Soviet Union.’ These men were luckier, being freed after only 2 ½ years. All told, said the Chinese, they had killed 106 American and Taiwanese agents who had parachuted into China between 1951 and 1954 and had captured 124 others. Although the CIA had little, if anything, to show for its commando actions, it reportedly maintained the program at least until 1960.” [Blum, op cit. p. 25; Wise and Rose, op cit, p. 112-15; Thomas Powers, “The Man Who Kept the Secrets”, New York, 1979, pp. 43-4; “Newsweek”, 26 March 1973]

25.“There were many CIA flights over China for purely espionage purposes, carried out by high-altitude U-2 planes, pilotless ‘drones’, and other aircraft. These over flights began around the late 1950s and were not discontinued until 1971, to coincide with Henry Kissinger’s first visit to Peking. The operation was not without incident. Several U-2 planes were shot down and even more of the drones, 19 of the latter by Chinese count between 1965 and 1969. China registered hundreds of ‘serious warnings’ about violations of its airspace, and on at least on occasion American aircraft crossed the Chinese border and shot down a Mig-17” [ Marchetti and Marks, op cit, pp. 150, 287; “Washington Post”, 27 May 1966; “New York Times”, 28 March 1969, p. 40]

26.“It would seem that no degree of failure or paucity of result was enough to deter the CIA from seeking new ways to torment the Chinese in the decade following their revolution. Tibet was another case in point. The Peking government claimed Tibet as part of China, as had previous Chinese governments for more than two centuries…The United States made its position clear during the war: “The Government of the United States has borne in mind the fact that the Chinese Government has long claimed suzerainty over Tibet and that the Chinese constitution lists Tibet among areas constituting the territory of the Republic of China. This Government has at no time raised a question regarding either of these claims.” (“Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II –Updated Edition, by William Blum, Common Courage Press, 2004, Monroe Maine, p.25; from “Foreign Relations of the United States, 1943, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1957, p. 630)

27.“After the communist revolution, Washington officials tended to be more equivocal about the matter. But U.S. actions against Tibet had nothing to do with the niceties of international law.”…By the mid-1950s, the CIA began to recruit Tibetan refugees and exiles in neighboring countries such as India and Nepal. Amongst their number were members of the Dalai Lama’s guard often referred to picturesquely as ‘the fearsome Khamba horsemen’, and others who had already engaged in some guerilla activity against Peking rule and/or the profound social changes being instituted by the revolution (Serfdom and Slavery were, literally, still present in Tibet). Those selected were flown to the United States, to an unused military base high in the Colorado Mountains, an altitude approximating that of their mountainous homeland. There, hidden away as much as possible from the locals, they were trained in the fine points of paramilitary warfare.” [Blum, op cit. p. 26]

28.“After completing training, each group of Tibetans was flown to Taiwan or some other friendly Asian country, thence to be infiltrated back into Tibet, or elsewhere in China, where they occupied themselves in activities such as sabotage, mining roads, cutting communications lines and ambushing small communist forces. Their actions were supported by CIA aircraft and on occasion led by Agency contract mercenaries. Extensive support facilities were constructed in northeast India.” [Blum, op cit. p. 26]

29.“The operation in Colorado was maintained until sometime in the 1960s. How many Tibetans passed through the course of instruction will probably never be known. Even after the formal training program came to an end, the CIA continued to finance and supply their exotic clients and nurture their hopeless dream of reconquering their homeland.” …In 1961, when the “New York Times” got wind of the Colorado operation, it acceded to a Pentagon request to probe no further. [ David Wise, “The Politics of Lying”, N.Y. 1973, paperback edition, pp. 239-54; Robbins op cit. pp 94-101; Marchetti and Marx op cit. pp 128-31, p. 97 1983 edition.] The matter was particularly sensitive because the CIA’s 1947 Charter and Congress’s interpretation of it had traditionally limited the Agency’s domestic operations to information collection.” [Blume, op cit. p. 26]

30.”Above and beyond the bedevilment of China on its own merits, there was the spillover from the Korean War into Chinese territory—numerous bombings and strafing by American planes which, the Chinese frequently reported took civilian lives and destroyed homes. And there was the matter of germ warfare….The Chinese devoted a great deal of effort to publicizing their claim that the United States, particularly during January to March 1952, had dropped quantities of bacteria and bacteria-laden insects over Korea and northeast China. It presented testimony of about 38 captured American airmen who had purposefully flown the planes with the deadly cargo. Many of the men went into voluminous detail about the entire operation; the kinds of bombs and other containers dropped the types of insects, the diseases they carried, etc. At the same time, photographs of the alleged germ bombs and insects were published. Then, in August, an ‘International Scientific Committee’ was appointed, composed of scientists from Sweden, France, Great Britain, Italy, Brazil and the Soviet Union. After an investigation in China of more than two months, the committee produced a report of some 600 pages, many photos and the conclusion that: ‘The peoples of Korea and China have been the objectives of bacteriological weapons. These have been employed by units of the U.S.A. armed forces, using a great variety of different methods for the purpose, some of which seem to be the developments of those applied by the Japanese during the second world war.’ [Blum, op cit p. 26; “People’s China”, English-language magazine, Peking, Foreign Languages Press, 17 September 1952, p. 28]

31.“The last reference has to do with the bacteriological warfare warfare experiments the Japanese had carried out against China between 1940 and 1942 [Note here this author is incorrect as the Japanese experiments on human beings were conducted from 1931 to 1945 continuously in many locations in China under several units other than the infamous Unit 731 see “Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare, 1932-45, and the American Cover-up by Sheldon H. Harris, Routledge, N.Y. 1994] The Japanese scientists responsible for this program were captured by the United States in 1945 and given immunity from prosecution in return for proving technical information about the experiments to American scientists from the Army biological research center at Fort Dietrick, Maryland. The Chinese were aware of this at the time of the International Scientific Committee’s investigation. [Callum A. MacDonald, “Korea: The War Before Vietnam”, N.Y. 1986, pp. 161-2] …In 1970… the “New York Times” reported that during the Korean War, when US forces were overwhelmed by ‘human waves’ of Chinese, the Army dug into captured Nazi chemical warfare documents describing Sarin, a nerve gas so lethal that a few pounds could kill thousands of people in minutes…By the mid nineteen-fifties, the Army was manufacturing thousands of gallons of Sarin.” [Blum, op cit p. 27; “New York Times”, 9 August 1970, IV p. 3]

32.And during the 1950s and 1960s, the Army and the CIA conducted numerous experiments with biological agents within the United States. To cite just two examples: In 1955, there is compelling evidence that the CIA released whooping-cough bacteria into the open air in Florida, followed by an extremely sharp increase in the incidence of the disease in the state that year. [“Washington Post”, 17 December 1979, p. A 18, “Whooping cough cases recorded in Florida jumped from 339 and one death in 1954 to 1,080 and 12 deaths in 1955; The CIA received the bacteria from the Army’s bacteriological research center at Fort Dietrick, Maryland.] The following year another toxic substance was disseminated in the streets and tunnels of New York City. [ “San Francisco Chronicle”, 4 December 1979, p. 12; For a detailed account of [numerous] U.S. Government experiments with biological agents within the United States including on large civilian populations without their awareness or consent see Leonard A. Cole, “Clouds of Secrecy: The Army’s Germ Warfare Tests Over Populated Areas”, Maryland 1990; Blum, op cit, p. 395;

33.In March 1966, Secretary of State Dean Rusk spoke before a congressional committee about American policy toward China. Mr. Rusk it seems was perplexed that ‘At times the Communist Chinese leaders seem to be obsessed with the notion that they are being threatened and encircled’. He spoke of China’s ‘imaginary, almost pathological notion that the United States and other countries around its borders are seeking an opportunity to invade mainland China and destroy the Peiping [Peking] regime’. The Secretary then added: ‘How much Peiping’s fear of the United States is genuine and how much of it is artificially induced for domestic political purposes only the Chinese Communist leaders themselves know. I am convinced, however, that their desire to expel our influence and activity from the western Pacific and Southeast Asia is not motivated by fears that we are threatening them.” [“Department of State Bulletin”, 2 May 1966; Blum, op cit. p. 27]

34.“The Japanese are using a BW [Biological Warfare] weapon that is more deadly, far vaster that that which killed the sleeping Americans on December 7, 1941. This attack would not only strike at outposts of empire but even at the life blood in the very veins of the nation. Its effects would be visited on generations. A crude type of this secret weapon speeded the fall of Bataan.” [Newman Barclar Moon, “Japan’s Secret Weapon”, New York Current Publishing, 1944 p. 2 [note year 1944 during the war] quoted in Sheldon Harris, op. cit p. 160 [Note also that prisoners from the Baatan death march were used by Japanese in experiments in Manchuria according to Sheldon Harris “Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare 1932-45 and the American Cover-up, Routledge, NY 1994]

35.“Evidence gathered in this investigation has greatly supplemented and amplified previous aspects of this field. It represents data which we have obtained by Japanese scientists at the expenditure of many millions of dollars and years of work. Information has accrued with respect to human susceptibility to those diseases as indicated by specific infectious doses of bacteria. Such information could not be obtained in our own laboratories because of scruples attached to human experimentation. These data were secured with a total outlay of Yen 250,000 to date, a mere pittance by comparison with the actual cost of the studies.” [Edwin V. Hill, Basic Sciences, Camp Dietrick to General Alden C. Waitt, Chief, Chemical Corps, 12 December 1947, The National Archives, quoted in Sheldon Harris op cit. p. 190;

36.“As far as I know, it was true that a deal was made. But it was the US side which approached my father, not the other way around…What I would like to emphatically say…is ‘Isn’t it important that not a single man under my father’s command was ever tried as a war criminal?’ I am really sorry for those who had to live in seclusion to evade possible prosecution but were it not for my father’s courage in making a deal with the occupation authorities…you know what I mean’. “ [Ishii Harumi in “The Japan Times”, 29 August 1982, p. 12 quoted in Harris, p. 190]

37.“Many of the men who served Ishii in Manchuria and China later became deans of medical schools, senior science professors, university presidents, and key technicians in those industries that created the country’s economic miracle in the postwar era. He also created an infrastructure within the death factory in Harbin’s suburb that held together throughout the period of Japanese BW research. He was able, also, to inspire his men with fanatical loyalty to him personally, and to extraordinary dedication to the tasks assigned to them. [Harris, p. 54;

38.“Under a cloak of possible immunity from prosecution, the ‘open secret’ became detailed fact in 1946 and 1947. By that time, Unit 731 scientists did not have to resort to deceptive animal terms in describing their work to American scientists eager to gain precious information concerning human BW experiments. Perhaps they were not totally candid with the Americans but, but they did provide them with specific details of some of their previous work in the course of lengthy interviews and in written reports to investigators. The data were allegedly constructed from memory, since all records in Manchuria were supposedly destroyed during the Japanese retreat in 1945. However the documents themselves suggest strongly that many of 731’s records survived” [ Harris, p. 64; Thompson Report, pp. 11-12]

39.“The people of the unit [in Nanking] called their steel barred cells ‘rooms that do not open’. The cells were patrolled by armed guards at all times. At the 731st, they called these subjects ‘maruta’ (logs); but here, they were called ‘zaimoku’ (lumber).” (Harris, op cit. p. 101)

40.“Some veterans today—veterans captured and imprisoned in World War II’s Pacific Theater—have a story to tell and an agonizing chapter of their lives to resolve. These veterans…have not received justice…These men are victims of a terrible secret, born 44 years ago deep in Manchuria in Japanese POW camps. Theirs perhaps has been the longest and best kept secret of World War II, long denied by Japan and long concealed by the U.S. Government…. Bit by bit and year by year, despite our government’s public statements of ignorance, the truth has been leaking out. We know now that Mukden was more than just another Japanese POW camp for Allied soldiers….Operated by Japanese scientists from Unit 731, Mukden was a site for deadly chemical and biological experiments, for injections, body dissections, blood and feces tests, freezing of body parts, infection of wounds with anthrax, the applications of plague bacillus, cholera, dysentery, and typhoid….That.. Was what was waiting for many of the American fighting men who survived the Bataan Death March. Along with our soldiers at those terrible camps were also men from China, Great Britain, Australia, and the Soviet Union. We don’t know how many survived, but we do know that the U.S. government knew of the experiments at the war’s end.” [statement of Congressman Pat Williams, Democrat, Montana, before the Subcommittee on Compensation, Pension, and Insurance of the Committee on Veteran’s Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, 17 September 1986, Serial No. 99-61, p. 3; quoted in Harris, p. 113]

41.“I have refused to bow before circumstances and keep truth before closed doors. General Douglas A. MacArthur left his men in 1942 and sealed their fate in May of 1946 by promising the war criminal General Ishii immunity from prosecution if he would surrender the records of Unit 731. This collaboration between MacArthur and Ishii is unsavory to say the least. The lives of the American FEPOWs [Far East Prisoners of War] experiment on by Unit 731 at Mukden were forfeited in the name of national security.” [Ibid p. 18; Harris, p. 118]

42.“I understand that our Government consistently has denied any firm knowledge that any Americans were experimented upon. But today you will hear from a POW who was experimented upon. To deny that truth is to deny the existence of that POW. [Committee on Veteran’s Affairs, Ibid. p. 5]…

43.“We were required, when we came to the depot at Manila, on the way back from the prisoner of war camps, we signed a statement by the Army stating we would not tell before our experiences or conditions, what happened to us in the prison camps, before any audiences or the newspapers, under threat of court martial.” [Harris, p. 120]

44.“The Emperor’s youngest brother, Prince Mikasa, evidently visited Ping Fan and toured much of the facility. Unit 731’s official photographer remembered the visit vividly, because he had produced an unclear photograph taken of Mikasa during his stop. Ishii had upbraided the photographer, saying in effect, that with all the scientific expertise available at Ping Fan, surely something could be done to make the photograph more attractive. Mikasa in his memoirs remembered seeing ‘films where large numbers of Chinese prisoners of war brought by cargo trains and lorries were made to march on the Manchurian plain for poison gas experiments on live subjects.’ He also recalled: ‘A high ranking military doctor [Ishii?] who took part in these experiments was telling me prior to this, at the time when Lord Lytton with his group was dispatched by the League of Nations [1932, at the time Ishii began his BW work in Manchuria] in order to investigate the Manchurian incident, they attempted to give this group some fruit infected with cholera, but did not succeed.’ ” [“Mikasa-no-miya, Takahito, “Ancient Orient and I”, Tokyo, Gakusei Sha Publishers, 1984, pp. 16-17]

45.“Herewith extracts of telecom held by G-2 Personnel with the Chief of Chemical Corps…These extracts indicate the extreme value of the intelligence information obtained and the danger of publicity on this subject…It is the intention of Mil Int representative on SWNCC Sub Committee to recommend that information re B.W. given to us with not be divulged or used in war crimes trials…I [General Alden Waitt] consider it vital that we get the information and the secrecy [which would be impossible if war crimes trials were held] be maintained…The information so far indicates that the investigation is producing most important data. It merits all necessary support, financial and otherwise.” [Intelligence Information on Bacteriological Warfare, 9 June 1947, Record Group [ 331, Box 1434, 13, National Archives; Harris, op cit, p. 204]…”Experiments on human beings similar to those conducted by the Ishii BW group have been condemned as war crimes by the International Military Tribunal for the trial of major Nazi war criminals in its decision handed down at Nuremberg on 30 September 1946; Harris, p. 218; note also some selected Nazi “scientists” were also given immunity from prosecution, put on CIA payroll (Operations ARTICHOKE and PAPERCLIP) in return for turning over similar “research” findings from experiments in Nazi concentration camps and institutes for the disabled.; SWNCC or Ste-War-Navy Coordinating Committee Report]

46.“The Associate Press reported today that ‘A Spokesman for General Douglas MacArthur’s headquarters said today that the chemical section of his headquarters, in a ‘complete’ search of its files, however, did not find anything relative to Japanese use of bacteriological warfare.’ The statement was technically true but disingenuous. The Chemical Section was not involved with war crimes investigations, and had little or nothing to do with Ishii and BW. A search of the intelligence files, however, would have disclosed considerable American knowledge of Japanese BW preparations. Several days later, a MacArthur spokesman denied that any American POWs were subjected to BW experiments, as charged at Khabarosk. He conceded that Japan had done research with animals, ‘but that there was no evidence they ever had used human beings’, and that ‘no Americans held prisoner by the Japanese at Mukden ever accused their captors of having used them as human guinea pigs.’. Prosecutor Joseph Keenan chipped in with a denial that his investigators had found any evidence.” [“New York Times”, 27 December 1949, p. 16]

47.“There is proof of the experiments at Mukden. Dr. Sanders told me that he was aware of the experiments at Mukden, but not until after he cut the deal. He said he would have never cut the deal to grant Ishii immunity from prosecution if he had known Americans were experimented on. But he said that an American officer of high rank, ‘whom I pledged never to reveal his name’, had told him that Americans at Mukden were guinea pigs.” [ Harris, p. 121]

48.“The story of Japanese bacteriological warfare implicates more than half the persons tried by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East and moiré than 5,000 others who worked on the BW program in some capacity. It involved a genuine conspiracy of silence…Allied prosecutors from half a dozen countries affected by the issue remained silent at the Tokyo War Crimes Trial about what they knew…The Chinese[Nationalists]…must have lived in hope of gaining some kind of quid pro quo for their silence….The Russian authorities who sought to raise the matter…allowed themselves to be silenced…What seems quite incredible is that the cover-up conspiracy—for it is by no means a demonological exaggeration to speak of it as a conspiracy—was maintained throughout the three years which elapsed between the Japanese defeat and the conclusion of the Tokyo trial…and that…the conspiracy was sustained for so long afterwards.” [Calvacoressi, Peter, Wint Guy, and Pritchard, John, “Total War: The Causes and Courses of the Second World War, revised second edition, N.Y. Pantheon Books, 1989, pp. 1201-06; quoted in Harris, p. 173]



Listed below are traces from CIABASE on NED operations in China.

Info from CIABASE re NED Activities in China are:


China, 91 Ned, columbia university, for conference on relationship

Between nationalism and democracy in asia. $16,683. National endowment for

Democracy annual reports 91 36


China, 60-92 Considering cia’s massive recruiting efforts in china during

And after cultural revolution, events of june should have been no surprise.

Perry, m. (1992). Eclipse: the last days of the cia 240


China, 89-90 Xu lin, 3rd sec chinese embassy defected april/may 90. He is

14th envoy from chinese diplomatic posts in u.s. To defect since military

Crackdown in tiananmen square. Washington post 5/5/90 a9


China, 89-94 Chinese release 3 men connected with pro-democracy

Demonstrations in 89. Xiao bin arrested after he told u.s. Tv reporters

Chinese army killed thousands of people in 89 around tiananmen

Demonstrations. Chinese also released liao yiwu, a poet, and ding junze, a

Professor. Washington post 2/5/94 a13


China, 79-93 Wei jingsheng, china’s most prominent political prisoner to

Be freed. Wei, an electrician and editor of an underground political

Journal, was sentenced in 79 for calling for democratic reform. Wang juntao

Is serving 13-year term for his leading role in democracy demonstrations in

Tiananmen square in 89. Washington post 9/16 a26 9/21/93 a13


China, 93 A chinese journalist preparing for a fellowship at columbia u.

Detained by chinese secret police. Gao yu was second journalist detained in

2 weeks by state security. Her husband is zhao yuankang. On 9/27, xi yang,

A hong kong journalist was seized for stealing state secrets. Washington

Times 10/6/93 a16


China, 94 Chinese dissident qin yongmin sentenced to 2 years for

Advocating progress toward democracy. He arrested in 11/93 after he and 8

Others released a peace charter. Washington times 1/26/94 a15


China, 94 Protest by hong kong and others over china claiming xi yang, a

Journalist with ming pao, had really been spying. His accomplice, tian ye,

Was a clerk at people’s bank of china. Washington times 4/7/94 a13


China, 84-90 Ned, china perspective, inc. To continue publication of “the

Chinese intellectual” (tci) and support for chinese students in west.

Launched in 84 with ned support, tci is a chinese language quarterly

Promoting open discussion of democratic values, institutions and issues

Important to china. Originally targeted at mainland students studying in

West, journal moved its offices from new york to beijing in 88 and began

Distribution in china. Center in beijing hosted discussions on democracy in

China. In wake of june 3-4, 89 events in tiananmen square, editorial

Offices moved back to new york and china perspective has begun providing

Support for chinese students in west who cannot, for political reasons,

Return to china. National endowment for democracy annual reports 89 16, 90



China, 89-90 Op yellow bird – unofficial name for clandestine rescue from

China of most important pro-democracy leaders. For 6 months after june

Crackdown, cia’s most valued agents in china, hong kong, and macao provided

A safe haven and means of escape. Wuer kaixi and li lu disappeared, later

Other leading dissidents wan runnan and yan jiaqi, made it to west. During

Last week in may, u.s. Ambassador lilley handed out more than 200 visas to

Intellectuals, scientists, and students and on several occasions lent money

To escapees. In absence of credible cia leadership in china, lilley was

Once again cia’s beijing cos. Chinese astrophysicist, feng lizhi, went to

Embassy for safe haven. It evident pro-democracy leaders could not have

Made their way to west without tacit assistance of chinese security

Officials. A number of western intel agencies helped – such as french,

British. Perry, m. (1992). Eclipse: the last days of the cia 247-8


China, 90-94 Discussion of dissent in china. Zhang lin, 31; wang

Zhonhqiu, 27; dissenting through league for protection of working people of

Prc, a labor movement organized along lines of poland’s solidarity. China

Recently rounded up scores of well-known chinese dissidents. Two released

Are wang jung-tao – who left immediately for the u.s.; and, chen ziming.

Authorities also arrested wei jingsheng – father of china’s democracy

Movement and key members of the shanghai human rights association.

Dissidents use sophisticated pagers. Liu qing, is chairman of ny-based

Human rights of china (hric). Liu, who spent a decade in prison for his

Role in 78-79 democracy wall movement, regularly calls activists. A

Toll-free number established for dissidents to call at&t operator who will

Place a collect call for them. Fax machines, computers and copiers used by

Dissidents. U.s. News & world report 5/30/94 43-4


China, 92 Arrest of shen chen, ross terrill by chinese gvt. Time 9/14/92



China, 92 China released student activist shen tong. He first prominent

Leader of 89 democracy movement to return to china. He a 24-year old

Graduate student from boston u. Who went to china to announce opening of

His pro-democracy org. Shen “confessed his illegal activities involving

Establishment of anti-gvt orgs in china at instigation and support of

Certain foreign forces.” u.s. Had demanded his release. Shen traveled

Extensively through china, meeting with dissidents, scholars and gvt

Officials. He arrested on 9/1/92 hours before he to announce establishment

Of a branch office of his massachusetts-based democracy for china fund. Qi

Dafeng, another activist and qian liyun, wife of a student leader who

Recently escaped to u.s., were detained with shen. American scholar, ross

Terrill, an associate of shen’s, was expelled. Washington post 10/25/92 a35


China, 92 International confederation of free trade unions (icftu)

Published a report re establishment of free trade union of china, a “new

Underground movement formally launched in may 1992.” a pamphlet dated

1/16/92, circulated in china by preparatory committee of the beijing free

Trade union was translated into english by the hong kong federation of

Trade unions. Journal of democracy (national endowment for democracy) 7/92



China, 93-94 11/14/93 9 chinese prodemocracy activists announced

Formation of a group around “peace charter,” which calls for peaceful

Transition to democracy. Yang zhou and qin yongmin arrested. Journal of

Democracy (national endowment for democracy) 1/94 154


China, 93 Liang heng is on the editorial board of the journal of

Democracy. National endowment for democracy annual reports 9/93 14


China, 93 Ned and/or cipe supporting in china: chinese economists

Society, center for modern china, china perspective to support “the chinese

Intellectual”; columbia’s university’s center for study of human rights,

Center for chinese legal studies, and east asian institute for publications

And course development; democratic china magazine; ftui to enable asian

American free labor institute (aafli) to help activists in china and unions

In hong kong and funding hong kong confederation of free trade unions; ftui

To enable aafli support chinese activists in exile; future of china society

To support conference at princeton university’s woodrow wilson school;

Legal education and assistance project; iri to promote legislation; laogai

Research foundation; press freedom guardian; tibet fund; and, the today

Magazine. National endowment for democracy annual reports 9/93 39-40


China, 93 Ned/ftui/aafli grant to support chinese worker activists in

Exile and in china to strengthen hong kong confederation of trade unions;

And to continue publication of china note, which informs central role

Workers and unions play in struggle to create democratic societies.

National endowment for democracy newsletter 7/93 10


China, 93 Ned/ftui/aafli to support chinese worker activists in

Publicizing internationally standards for worker rights, to provide

Subsistence funds to activists in china and to support workers living in

Exile in the west. National endowment for democracy newsletter 3/93 6


China, 93 Ned, human rights in china given grant for legal project that

Gives legal advice and support for prisoners and disseminates materials in

China. <end 7/93 10


China, 94 Article, “the china syndrome,” discusses the battle over trade

And human rights. Names chinese dissidents. U.s. News & world report

3/21/94 39-42


China, 94 Asia watch report notes wang wanxing, a political dissident,

Was arrested after staging a one-man demonstration in tiananmen square in

92. He is one of 1,700 named in report by asia watch, ny-based human rights

Monitoring org. Report states 93 was worst period for political arrests

Since mid-1990. 80% of arrests occurred in tibet where buddhist monks have

Demonstrated for independence from china. Washington post 2/21/94 a26


China, 94 China’s dissidents emerging after 5 years – issuing bold public

Appeals for freedom of speech and right to represent workers and peasants.

Chinese gvt detained at least a dozen activists. Robin munro, hong kong

Director of human rights watch. Zhang kangshang. League for the protection

Of the rights of working people of the people’s republic of china named.

Its emergence means chinese pro-democracy mve is getting organized. League

Said it has 120 members two of three principal sponsors detained, third,

Liu nianchun, disappeared. Dissident wei detained by police after meeting

With john shattuck, asst secretary state for human rights. About 2 hours

After being detained wei called his secretary, tong yi, who called news

Organizations. Within hours, president clinton was reacting to the

Detention. Washington post 3/13/94 a1,27


China, 94 Chinese dissidents ren wanding and wei jingsheng granted rfk

Human rights award. Both in jail in china so liu qing, who currently head

Ny-based human rights in china, accepted award. Ren wanding, founder of

China human rights league, was a leading figure in 78-79 Democracy wall

Movement. Journal of democracy (national endowment for democracy) 1/95 188


China, 94 Human rights groups expressed outrage re china’s sentencing of

9 chinese dissidents – per human rights watch-asia – whose executive

Director is sidney jones. Hu shigen, rcvd 20 years; kang yuchun, a doctor,

17 years; liu jingsheng, 15 years; wang guowi, jailed for leading a

Counterrevolutionary group. Lu zhigang, chen wei, zhang chunzu, and wang

Tiancheng all received 5 year sentences for spreading propaganda and

Actively taking part in a counterrevolutionary group. Defendants arrested

In mid-92 for allegedly forming or joining 3 underground dissident groups.

Rui chaohuai was jailed for 3 years and li quanli placed under supervision

For 2 years. Washington times 12/18/94 a8


China, 94 Shanghai police detained 4 members of local “association for

Human rights,” including ling muchen as he prepared to fly to u.s. For

Academic study. Others detained include dai xuezhong, liu guotao, chairman

Of the rights association and wang fuchen. Washington post 5/10/94 a13


China, 94 Zhang lin and his fellows formed league for the protection of

Working people that used safe houses and pledges of secrecy. Meetings with

Foreign journalists. Coded signals. Zhang had been arrested in beijing

Prior to 6/4/94 anniversary of 89 tiananmen square. U.s. News & world

Report 6/20/94 22


China, 95 Chinese premier li peng has ordered ministries of state

Security and public security to increase antidissident ops. According to

South china morning post, peng and state council secretary general luo gan

Have concluded that covert ops from a western gvt have been financing and

Lending support to dissident groups. Kyodo 5/30/95


China, tibet, 92 Chinese authorities arrested at least 69 persons for

Pro-tibetan pro-independence. London-based tibetan information network said

Arrests made in villages and remote tibetan monasteries. Washington times

6/20/92 a2


China, tibet, 93 International campaign for tibet, a non-gvt organization

(Ngo), pushing human rights in tibet at a press conference said china

Trying to change its image over rights violations in tibet. Lodi gyaltsen

Gyari, is president of the organization and once was part of the dalai

Lama’s gvt. Reed brody was another participant at the press conference. He

Is director of the international human rights law groups. Tibet, a part of

China under last dynasty, was pried loose by england in 1911 when dynasty

Collapsed. Washington times 11/16/93 a12


In 90-91 Traditionalists upset at peace corps. Coverdell’s efforts make

Corps a “vibrant, vital part of u.s. Policy” have upset traditionalists who

Say he is distorting agency’s image as a largely non-political,

Person-to-person effort to help third world. Ig’s report said it cutting

Back on aid to third world and diverting those resources chiefly to eastern

Europe. In east europe agency expected to have more than 400 volunteers,

Nearly three fourths of them teaching english. Poland alone to get 213

Volunteers. Volunteers to go to laos and mongolia, first marxist ruled

Nations to accept peace corps. Talks under way with china, mozambique, and

Yugoslavia. Also negotiating to renew philippines program. Wp 1/2/91 a1,5.

Paul d. Coverdell urging american cities use more than 120,000 vets his

Agency to teach disadvantaged youth. He said 300 withdrawn from middle

East. Another 3,000 return to u.s. Each year after overseas assignments.

Washington post 1/28/91 a9


Tibet, 94 Tibetans still flee chinese masters. 35 years after an uprising

Failed and the dalai lama fled to india, his people continue to follow him

Into exile. President clinton set as one condition on china for renewing

Mfn status, protecting tibet distinctive heritage. On 5/26 he dropped any

Further linkage between human rights and mfn trade status. Washington times

6/4/94 a9


Tibet, china, 94 Dalai lama, tibet’s exiled leader, has dropped plans to

Move his hqs from dharamsala, india. Washington times 6/4/94 a8


China, 95 China expelled joseph wei chan, usaf liaison officer, and

Dwayne howard florenzie, assistant usaf liaison officer. Both were based at

The us consulate in hong kong. China said the two officers sneaked into a

Number of restricted military zones in china’s southeast coastal areas and

Illegally acquired military intel by photographing and videotaping.

Officers were given 24 hrs. To leave the country. U.s. Has not protested

The expulsions. Mercury news wire services 8/2/95; cnn headline news 8/2/95


China, 95 China ordered expulsion of two u.s. Air force officers it has

Been holding for four days. They were caught spying in restricted military

Zones along the south-eastern coast. The two hong kong-based military

Attaches “sneaked” into restricted areas and illegally acquired military

Intel by photographing and videotaping. White house said the two were on

Authorized travel but did not deny spying charges. Detained americans were

Col. Joseph wei chan and capt dwayne howard florenzie, both air force

Liaison officers at u.s. Embassy in hong kong. Pentagon officials said both

Were defense liaison officers. Florenzie is an intel officer in acquisition

Management. Chan is ops commander and political-military affairs officer.

Attaches at every u.s. Embassy. Their job to monitor activities of military

Forces of host country and to carry out security-related tasks at the

Embassy. They usually work closely with intel officers. Bio on chan and

Florenzie. Washington post 8/3/95 a1,27


China, 94 Chinese journalist, gao yu, sentenced to 6 years in prison.

William orme, exo of committee to protect journalists, complains. Diasy li

Yuet-wah of the hong kong journalists association protests. Human rights in

China, organization, based in new york involved. Washington times 11/13/94



93-95 U.s. Taking a crack at commercial democracy. From time it took

Office clinton adm made clear future of cia lay in turning its resources to

Detailed, focused gathering of economic intel. For years cia has helped

U.s. Trade negotiators, providing day-to-day assessments about strategies

Of countries across the table. Commerce dept’s garten worked closely with

Cia to focus its attentions on big emerging markets (bems) [such as china,

Brazil, indonesia]. Last spring raytheon corp battled with thomson csf, a

Giant french electronics firm for right to lead a $1.4 billion project in

The amazon. Winner to set up complex surveillance system, using radar,

Satellite imagery and computers to measure health of rainforest, catch

Illegal mining ops and detect drug trafficking. Competition between french

And u.s. Corporations at fever pitch. Cia reported french offering bribes.

U.s. Complained and matched french’s financing terms. New york times

2/19/95 business 1,6


94-95 Fbi moving abroad. Fbi director louis freeh whirlwind tour of

Eastern europe last year demonstrated fbi’s intent to spread its influence

Abroad. According to specialists, the bureau now has agents in 21 countries

And continues to replace the cia as the agency reduces its foreign

Presence. Apparently the fbi considers it has eastern europe “under its

Belt” with international police training and liaison programs, and is

Moving on to new challenges, which include china and asia which freeh wants

To visit in the coming months. Intelligence – a computerized intelligence

Newsletter published in france 1/30/95 256/37


94 Fbi is expanding its international police training and liaison

Programs with russia and eastern europe and may spread them within asia

During coming months. Fbi director freeh planning to visit china in early

95 and could lead to similar programs in that part of world. Its growth

Overseas – agents in 21 countries, comes at a time when cia is cutting back

Its foreign posts which once numbered 100. Fbi says their role limited to

Law enforcement issues – drugs, money laundering and does not involve intel

Activities. To open regional police academy in budapest. Fbi in past has

Trained about 27,000 foreign police officials, including chiefs and

Maintains contact with many of them and frequently has them back for

Refresher courses. Washington post 12/14/94 a28


China, 90-93 Bin wu, 29, on trial for illegally exporting night vision

Equipment to china. He supposedly forced by chinese to choose between

Prison and spying. He accepted to go to u.s. As a spy. He turned by fbi and

Paid $21,000 over 18 months and arrested in october. Intelligence

Newsletter 6/17/93 5


China, 92 The fbi raising the specter of an intel threat from china.

Article lists china’s spy net: ministry state security, international

Liaison dept, united front dept, military intel dept, new china news agency

And various research institutes. Washington times 1/18/92 a3


China, 95 China expelled joseph wei chan, usaf liaison officer, and

Dwayne howard florenzie, assistant usaf liaison officer. Both were based at

The us consulate in hong kong. China said the two officers sneaked into a

Number of restricted military zones in china’s southeast coastal areas and

Illegally acquired military intel by photographing and videotaping.

Officers were given 24 hrs. To leave country. U.s. Has not protested the

Expulsions. Mercury news wire services 8/2/95; cnn headline news 8/2/95


China, 95 Harry wu arrested for stealing state secrets from china. He is

Research fellow at hoover institution and director of his own research

Foundation. He arrested in wuhan and accused of spying, buying secret info,

Stealing secret docs, and giving info to foreign organizations and

Institutions. Wu’s passport name is peter h. Wu. Wu had carried a secret

Camera in 91 for a sixty minutes program. In 94 he videotaped alleged sales

Of human organs from executed prisoners. Washington times 7/6/95 a1,10 and

Washington post 7/9/95 a1,23


China, 85-95 China released a video of harry wu confessing to fabricating

Allegations about chinese prison labor and sale of organs. Jeff fiedler is

A union official who sits on board of wu’s laogai foundation, which

Promotes wu’s work. Washington post 7/28/95 a1,30


China, 90-91 Ned, foundation for human rights and democracy in china, to

Sponsor a conference to coordinate fund-raising and program activities for

U.s.-based chinese pro-democracy groups. 1990 $45,858, 1991 $218,439.

National endowment for democracy annual reports 90 20,91 36


China, 92 China expels ross terrill, a harvard research associate and a

China expert, who was an adviser to shen tong who was arrested for

Political activism. Qi dafeng and qian liyun were arrested with shen tong.

They were members of u.s.-based democracy for china fund. Washington times

9/3/92 a7


China, 92 Chinese authorities after arresting prominent dissident shen

Tong followed up by preventing his associate, u.s. Sinologist ross terrill,

From meeting with foreign reporters to distribute info about their

U.s.-based movement to promote democracy. Terrill,is a research associate

At harvard. Two french journalists seized along with shen were expelled to

Hong kong. Shen also representing an american consulting firm looking for

Potential investments. Shen heads massachusetts-based group called

Democracy for china fund and hoped to announce formation of a beijing

Office. Terrill is a member of its advisory board. His 2 associates, quian

Liyun – whose husband is a student leader now in the u.s. – and qi dafeng

Had been hired to work in beijing branch, according to marshall strauss,

The funds director. Washington post 9/2/92 a23,25


China, 93 China seeks apology in search of ship yin he. Washington post

9/5/93 a43


China, 93 Chinese ship searched for war chemicals – none found. State,

Pentagon and intel agencies fingerpointing over yin he incident. U.s.,

Based on highly reliable intel tips, accused china of using the ship to

Transport chemicals to iran. Washington times 9/8/93 a1,10


China, 93 U.s. Intel reported a chinese ship, bound for iran, was

Carrying chemical weapon ingredients. China protested when navy prevented

Ship from docking. China invited u.s. Authorities to inspect ship and open

Any of the 24 cargo boxes – on condition results be publicized. U.s. News &

World report 8/23/93


China, iraq, ussr, 81-92 Di analysis has fallen short in its primary

Tasks: to predict, warn and inform policymakers how events will affect u.s.

Interests. First word senior officials received about tiananmen square

Massacre, iraq invasion of kuwait, and attempted kgb/armed forces coup

Against gorbachev came from cnn, not cia. Ott, m. (1994). Article in

Foreign policy winter 93-94, “shaking up the cia” 141


China, 90 China’s economy is in a deep recession that shows no signs of

Abating and is threatening the country’s social stability, cia said beijing

“Is grappling with the fallout from over restrictive austerity policies”

That have “caused china’s worst slump in a decade.” washington post

6/29/90, a31


China, 91 Chinese economy in midst of strong recovery per cia report.

Washington times 8/9/91 c3


China, 93-94 Classified studies said the chinese leadership because of

Internal problems would be unlikely to support any liberalization and were

Not taking seriously u.s. Threats of higher trade tariffs. Washington post

5/31/94 a18


China, 89-93 China expelled labor activist han dongfang who tried to

Return home from u.s. He said he was beaten before being deported to hong

Kong. Han had attended human rights conferences and told president clinton

To consider labor conditions when renewing china’s preferential trade

Status. Han, 30, founder of china’s free trade union, was imprisoned two

Years following democracy demonstrations in china in 89. He released in 91.

Washington post 8/16/93 a18


China, 89-93 Han dongfan, organizer of china’s first free trade union

During pro-democracy protests who was jailed, was thrown out of china upon

His return. Washington post 8/22/93 a25, washington times 8/22/93 a9


China, 91-92 With ned funding, the asian american free labor institute

(Aafli) publishes “china labor notes.” national endowment for democracy

Annual reports 1992 19


China, 92 International confederation of free trade unions (icftu)

Published a report re establishment of free trade union of china, a “new

Underground movement formally launched in may 1992.” a pamphlet dated

1/16/92, circulated in china by preparatory committee of the beijing free

Trade union was translated into english by the hong kong federation of

Trade unions. Journal of democracy (national endowment for democracy) 7/92



China, 94-95 Aafli funding leading labor activists inside china and in

Exile, to support trade unions in hong kong, and to produce monthly

Chinese-language china labor bulletin. National endowment for democracy

Newsletter summer 94-95


China, 92-93 China weekly charged foreign journalists stealing state

Secrets – article in outlook weekly 2/22/93 prominently featured two

Western reporters – lena sun of washington post and andrew higgins of a

London-based newspaper, the independent – who have been accused of stealing

Secret documents. Washington post 2/25/93 a19


China, 93 Letters to editor re voice of america. Sid davis program

Director’s letter states voa reports in 46 languages. Tens of millions of

Chinese listened to voa during tiananmen crisis. Hundreds of local radio

Stations in e. Europe and ussr, africa and latin america have become voa

Affiliates, carrying voa programs. Salaries of employees at voa, radio free

Europe and radio liberty are paid by u.s. Gvt. Washington post 10/25/93 a18


82-93 Ned established as private, non-profit org in 83 to aid development

Democracy thru private-sector initiatives. Ned receives an annual grant,

Funded thru usia. Ned makes grants to orgs in u.s. And abroad that carry

Out democracy-building activities in priority countries. Grantees include

Free trade union institute of afl-cio, center for international private

Enterprise of u.s. Chamber of commerce, national democratic institute, and

International republican institute. Grants made for activities in labor,

Business and political, party development, civic education, independent

Media, and human rights. In china, $130,000 allocated to continue

Publication of a chinese language quarterly that promotes evolution of

China toward an open democratic society. Gao/nsiad-94-83 1/94 22


83-94 Ned’s discretionary grants aimed at nondemocratic countries such as

Burma, china, cuba, and iraq. Grants small, and go to expatiate orgs to

Publish books, newspapers, train journalists, carry out civic education, or

Monitor human rights. Ned’s discretionary grants reflect anti-communism –

Particularly in asia where burma, china and vietnam get major attention.

Ned projects cold war notion of democracy promotion as a crusade, a stark

Struggle between good and evil. Ned’s acts generally consistent with other

U.s. Foreign policy and former senior gvt officials and other establishment

Insiders with conventional view of america’s world role. Foreign policy mag

Summer (7) 94 129


91-92 Articles in the journal of democracy jan 92 include: “burma’s quest

For democracy,” by aung san suu kyi; “old paradigms & new openings in latin

America,” b krauze; “russia’s emerging political parties,” by michael

Mcfaul; “haiti’s shattered hopes,” by pamela constable; indian democracy,”

By atul kohli; “eastern europe’s `terrible twos,'” by muravchik; “role of

Interim gvts,” by anyang’ nyong’o; “the new germany,” by szabo; and,

“Societal takeover in china and the ussr,” by minxin pei. Journal of

Democracy (national endowment for democracy) 1/92


92-93 Activists named for 93 democracy award by chairman of ned, john

Brademas, include han dongfang; gitobu imanyara, kenyan journalist; and

Vesna pesic, serbian academic. Brademas’ predecessor was winston lord, asst

Secretary of state for east asia and pacific affairs. Annual report for 93

Shows an expanded involvement in middle east, china, cuba and vietnam.

Resources used to support transition process in south africa and

Development throughout former ussr of free trade unions, independent media,

Human rights organizations, and groups advocating privatization and market

Economies. Grants given to cultural and civic groups in balkans and

Transcaucasus, indigenous human rights organizations in more than 12

African countries; chinese, burmese and vietnamese groups, groups in

Mexico, nicaragua, haiti, peru, argentina, and east west development

Foundation. Groups cooperating with ned include international center for

Human rights and democratic development in canada, westminster foundation

For democracy in great britain, japan institute for international affairs

And conrad adenauer foundation. National endowment for democracy annual

Reports 9/93 5-8


93 Ned holds 4th world conference in 4/93, dalai lama of tibet made

Opening remarks. Speakers in one panel were liu binyan of china, jose

Zalaquett of chile, kanan makiya of iraq, and lithuania’s former president,

Vytautas. President clinton spoke at the reception. Journal of democracy

(National endowment for democracy) 7/93 140-1


93 Op-ed by james phillips, senior analyst at heritage foundation,

“Short-sighted ned-slayers.” bemoans house action to eliminate funding for

Ned. Says ned has played vital role in former ussr, eastern europe, china,

Cuba, iran, iraq, nicaragua, vietnam and elsewhere. Ned-affiliated advisers

Help formulate election laws, train poll workers, monitor elections, and

Teach activists how to build political parties. Clinton adm request $20

Million increase in ned funding. Need to continue ned because it furthers

U.s. Interests; ned is cost-effective; and ned more entrepreneurial than

Other aid programs. Washington times 7/13/93 f3


China, 90 Ned, foundation for human rights and democracy in china, to

Bring together representatives of democratic movements in china and eastern

Europe at conference in berlin. $45,000. National endowment for democracy

Annual reports 90 20


China, 91-92 Chinese democracy activists and others participated in an

Ned-funded conference in wash d.c. Co-sponsored by the tibet forum and

Center for modern china. National endowment for democracy annual reports

1992 19


China, 91-92 Ned funded human rights in china (hric) and individuals with

Legal problems such as guo luoji, beijing historian yuan hongbing; legal

Scholar yu haocheng and former people’s daily deputy editor wang ruoshui.

National endowment for democracy annual reports 1992 19


China, 92 Loss of central political control has allowed ned to expand its

In-country activity which had been focused on supporting projects outside

Of china. Concentrated on civil society development: promoting

Environmental awareness and activism; supporting democratic developments in

Regions of china with large tibetan population; legal education; and

Providing legal assistance for victims of political persecution. Ned grants

Supported ten publications in china that focused on labor, market

Economics, democratization movements inside and outside china, democratic

Process and development of pluralistic and civil societies. National

Endowment for democracy annual reports 1992 42


China, 93-95 On 6/19/95 chinese authorities detained ned grantee harry

Wu. He was charged with spying and found guilty and sentenced to 15 years

In prison and expulsion. He left 8/24/95, wu is executive director of the

Laogai research foundation, funded by ned. He testified before congress on

4/3/95 – testimony given. National endowment for democracy newsletter

Summer 95 4-5


China, 95 At a ceremony on 5/2/95, ned presented 95 democracy award

“Goddess of democracy” to monique mujawamariya of rwanda, elena bonner and

Sergei kovalev of russia, and sergio aguayo of mexico. National endowment

For democracy newsletter summer 95 1


China, africa, 94 In 10/94 ned’s forum for democratic studies, sponsored

A day-long conference for political change in china. Memting attended by 35

Leading scholars, gvt officials, foundation executives, and chinese

Emigres. 12/7/94 forum held conference on nigeria. It brought together 35

Scholars, gvt officials, and human rights advocates, and representatives of

Nigeria’s democracy movement. Journal of democracy (national endowment for

Democracy) 1/95


China, tibet, 94-95 The tibet fund for democracy programs in tibet.

National endowment for democracy newsletter summer 94-95


Worldwide, china, 93 Participants from 60 countries attended ned’s 4th

World conference 4/26-7 in d.c. President clinton gave democracy awards to

Han dongfang, vesna pesic and gitobu imanyara. Award statues are replicas

Of “goddess of democracy” erected by chinese students in tiananmen square

In 89. National endowment for democracy newsletter 7/93 8 pages


China, australia, 90-95 Australia bugged chinese embassy for u.s.

Australian spies laid a net of fiber-optic listening devices throughout

Chinese embassy during its construction in late 80s. Bugging controlled by

Nsa. Info relayed directly from embassy to neighboring british high

Commission before beaming directly to u.s. Chinese embassy opened in 88.

U.s. Filtered info before relaying it back to australia. Washington times

5/29/95 a13


Asia, 92 Asian organizations supported by national endowment for

Democracy in 1992 include: american friends of afghanistan, cultural

Council of afghan resistance and quarterly journal, “afghan jehad;”

American friends of democracy in burma, democratic alliance of burma,

Associates to develop democratic burma to publish “burma alert;” cambodian

Documentation commission, khmer conscience; center for modern china, china

Perspective, inc., “the chinese intellectual,” chinese alliance for

Democracy, “china spring” magazine, chinese democratic overseas center to

Support “times herald,” democracy for china fund, democratic china, green

China, human rights in china, independent federation of chinese students

And scholars, international fund for the development of tibet, laogai

Research foundation, princeton china initiative; james f. Byrnes

International center of university of south carolina to enable leslie

Sawhny programme of bombay; indonesian legal aid foundation; indochina

Resource action center; u.s.-mongolia business council; nepal trade union

Congress; press foundation of asia and philippines chamber of commerce and

Industry and its “free the market, free the enterprise,” paper, commission

Of elections; institute for democracy in vietnam, free market economic

Studies center at the university of economy, “que me,” and democratic

Forum. National endowment for democracy annual reports 1992 42-49


China, 92 Senator biden sent top secret letter to gates accusing him of

[slanting intel] for political purposes. Newsweek 4/6/92 6


China, 90 James lilly ambassador to china and periodically proposed by

Hard-line d.c. Lobby and by u.s. News and world report to replace william

Webster as dci, probably saw chances of job disappear. On 12/3/90 with

Chinese ambassador to u.s., zhu qizhen, he lost his temper in public with

Human rights demonstrators. Intelligence newsletter 12/19/90 2


China, 92 James lilly once cia station chief in china who was ambassador

At the time of tiananmen square massacre, now is assistant secretary of

Defense for international security affairs. Washington times 9/17/92 a6


Dci webster rumored to be leaving. Cia’s performance in crisis re china,

Panama, afghanistan, lebanon and eastern europe. Re iraq cia failed warn

Bush soon enough and forcefully enough in july 90 That iraq intended to

Overrun kuwait. Cia failed have high level human intel assets in bagdad.

Cia did not adequately analyze info it did receive from real strength of

Iraqi army to number of mobile scud missiles; from bomb damage assessments,

To info on deployment of chemical weapons. (Cia’s ops directorate had less

Than handful of arabic-speaking officers at time of invasion.) ddo stolz’s

Retirement from ddo job further weakened dci. Congressional democrats who

Supported economic sanctions angered when dci flip-flopped on issue. Gates

And james lilly named as possible replacements. Extensive bio of lilly. Na

4/15/91 cover, 484-488


91-93 The role of usia – it responsible for gvt’s overseas info and

Cultural programs, including voice of america. It conducts activities such

As academic and cultural exchanges to press, radio, tv, film, seminar,

Libraries to strengthen greater support of u.s. Policies. 1/3 of its acts

Support democratic development. Usia conducts most programs thru direct

Interaction with overseas groups committed to democratization. Programs

Include academic exchanges, broadcasting to cuba, east/west center,

International visitors, north/south center, voice of america,

“Professionals in residence;” and, grant to national committee on

U.s.-china relations brought a delegation of chinese mayors to learn about

American political processes. Fulbright academic program gives grants to

U.s. Students, teachers, and scholars to study, teach, lecture and conduct

Research overseas and to foreign nationals to engage in similar acts in

U.s. Gao/nsiad-94-83 1/94 24-5


94 China assails u.s. Human rights policies. China notes its human rights

Policy is better than the u.s.’s “the incidence of crimes, murders,

Robberies, rapes, drug abuse and violence and racial discrimination in the

U.s. Comes first…u.s. Had a higher proportion of imprisoned people than

China. Washington post 2/28/94 a18


China, 78-94 Wei jingsheng one of most eloquent activists of 78-79

Democracy wall move arrested for one day and released prior to sos

Christopher’s trip. Student leader wang dan also held for 24 hours. 3 other

Activists were arrested during earlier visit of john shattuck, assistant

Secretary of state for human rights. 5 reporters taken on tour of prison

Where tiananmen square activist, liu gang, held – but were not allowed to

Speak to him. Home of yang zhou surrounded by police when he to see

Shattuck. Washington post 3/6/94 a25


China, 94 China accused u.s.of playing power politics under guise of

Human rights. China said u.s. Distorting human rights accord for political

Gain. U.s. Has a high crime rate, racial discrimination, etc. It said u.s.

Prison population 4 times that of china – it has 150,000 homeless compared

With 2-3 million in the u.s. Washington times 2/28/94 a11


China, 94 Christopher will press china heavily on rights. Washington

Times 3/4/94 a13


China, 94 Following visit of sos christopher, an editorial in official

Guanming daily criticized some people abroad who put forward lists of names

Of allegedly persecuted peoples of various kinds and ask, in disregard of

Laws of china, for earlier release of prisoners on lists. Washington post

3/23/94 a27


China, 94 House of representatives backs president clinton’s decision

Keeping china’s most favored nation (mfn) trade status. Washington times

8/10/94 b12


China, 94 In dispute over human rights, beijing tells washington to mind

Its own business. Article discusses wang dan, wei jingsheng, liu nianchun,

A labor activist; yuan hongbing. Time 3/21/94 47


China, 94 Op-ed by warren christopher, “my trip to beijing was

Necessary.” u.s. Policy for open societies as well as open markets.

Presidential order re progress in human rights for renewal of mfn status

For china. China, inter alia, gave info on 235 prisoners u.s. Had

Identified and promise to provide info on 106 imprisoned tibetans.

Washington post 3/22/94 a17


China, 94 Zhai weimin, who served 3 1/2-year sentence for his

Pro-democracy acts at tiananmen square mve – one of 9 dissidents rounded up

Recently and casts a pall on sos christopher’s planned visit. Wei

Jingsheng’s house surrounded by police. Wei has continued to press for

Democracy after more than 14 years in prison. His essays have been

Published abroad and he spoke to john shattuck. Qian yumin a signatory of a

“Peace charter” asking for moves toward democracy. Washington times 3/7/94



China, 95 China claims u.s. Is trying to keep china permanently poor and

Backward. Washington post 8/24/95 a29


Indochina, 73-92 Documents show existence of pows after nixon said all

Had come home. List of 67 includes many whose remains have since been

Returned. Washington post 9/25/92 a22


China, 78-94 Pro-democracy activist zhang lin says democracy movement is

At a crossroads now. Zhang proselytizes 20 days of each month and claims

100 underground members. He estimates there are several hundred core cadres

Involved in pro-democracy in anhui province. “Our strength is much better

Now than at peak of 89 movement.” zhang is a nuclear physics graduate. In

88, he tried to set up a guerrilla base in southwest yunnan province. In 79

When he at qinghua univ he got caught up in democracy movement. In 89,

During tiananmen square incident, zhang headed students autonomous union in

Bengbu and led local demonstrations and hunger strikes. He sentenced to 2

Years and released in march 91. Washington post 4/10/94 a1,27


China, 88-94 Prior to tiananmen square incident, ned had two offices in

China that gave regular seminars on democracy. Ned sponsored various

Chinese writers and publications. Probably ned or cia recruited numerous

Chinese students studying in u.s. When tiananmen square erupted, ned or cia

Probably sent or helped fax thousands letters to recipients in china,

Inflamed opinion via voice of america and sheltered a leading dissident in

U.s. Embassy – which also arranged for many dissidents to flee. Ned

Continues to support chinese dissidents and awards tiananmen’s “goddess of

Democracy,” to noted dissidents of all nations. In early 94, u.s. Tried to

Force china to ease political controls in exchange for continuation of most

Favored nation (mfn) trade status and called china a violator of human

Rights. In 5/94, chinese police detained 4 members of local association for

Human rights as one boarded flight to u.s.. Clinton, bowing to pressure

From business interests, separated human rights from china’s mfn status.

July 1992 issue of ned’s journal of democracy announces formation of new

Underground movement in china – free trade union of china. The announcement

Made by international confederation of free trade unions, a long-time cia

Labor front org. Mcgehee, r., ciabase update report 7/94


China, 91-93 Minxin pei, who has a ph.d. From harvard. As a student at

Harvard, he was active in the chinese overseas democracy movement. His

Article, “societal takeover in china and the ussr.” journal of democracy

(National endowment for democracy) 1/92 108-18


China, 93-94 Wang juntao comments at ned on 8/25/94. Juntao is a central

Figure in the chinese democracy movement with his colleague chen jiming.

Juntao played a key role in organizing the spring 89 democracy movement.

National endowment for democracy newsletter winter 94


China, 89-94 Voice of america (voa) long a factor in parts of china. Voa

Broadcasts during 89 tiananmen square demonstrations impressive. During

Demonstrations voa telling chinese of the massacre in tianamen. Students,

Peasants and workers gathered to listen to voa. Each broadcast was

Transcribed and posted on walls. Voa so effective that chinese officials

Tried to discredit voa broadcasts as propaganda. They have been trying to

Jam voa since 5/21/89. Voa uses anti-jamming tactics and equipment. Jospeh

Duffey, usia director, is dubious about what radio free asia could offer

That wouldn’t overlap voa. Senator biden aide says they hoping for

Democracy in china. Jack anderson washington post 1/10/94 c13


China, 90 Ned/ftui, to fund 12 issues of “china labor notes” newsletter

Produced by asian-american free labor institute (aafli). $20,892. National

Endowment for democracy annual reports 90 20


China, 91 Ned, china perspective, inc., for continued support of “the

Chinese intellectual.” $130,000. National endowment for democracy annual

Reports 91 36


China, 92 Ned grants supported ten publications in china that focused on

Labor, market economics, democratization movements inside and outside

China, democratic process and development of pluralistic and civil

Societies. National endowment for democracy annual reports 1992 42


China, 94 Three chinese-language publications – democratic china

Magazine, today, and tendency quarterly funded by ned. National endowment

For democracy newsletter 94


95 State human rights annual report caused anger in china that told u.s.

Rights experts to mind their own business. Report said abuses in china

Worsened this year. John shattuck said there was a significant crackdown on

Dissent. Washington times 2/3/95 a18


China, 90-91 Ned, center for modern china, to initiate a program of

Research by scholars and experts on contemporary issues related to china.

1990 $50,000, 1991 $47,240. National endowment for democracy annual reports

90 20,91 36


China, 90 Ned, foundation for human rights and democracy in china, for

Its constituent organizations to implement multi-faceted program designed

To develop and disseminate information concerning human rights abuses.

$63,500. National endowment for democracy annual reports 90 20


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