The “Xinhai Revolution” began with the Wuchang Uprising on October 10, 1911 and ended with the abdication of Emperor Puyi on February 12, 1912. During the whole process, many organizations, including ‘Revive China Society’ (Xing Zhonghui, 兴中会), Hua Xing Hui (华兴会), Guang Fu Hui (光复会) and ‘Chinese Revolutionary Alliance’ (Tongmenghui， 同盟会), were actively involved. Leaders like Sun Yat-sen (孙中山、孙逸仙 – Sun Zhongshan, Sun Yixian) and Huang Hsing (黄兴 – HuangXing ) emerged as excellent organizers of mass protests.
The revolution was motivated by anger over corruption in the Qing government, frustration with the government’s inability to restrain the interventions of foreign powers, and Han Chinese’s resentment toward a government dominated by an ethnic minority – the Manchus.
Following Wuchang Uprising(武昌起义), lots of protests from other provinces were held in succession. On 1 December, the North (dominated by the Qing Dynasty) and the South (under the control of the revolutionary movements) signed a peace agreement putting an end to the uprising. After that, Sun Yat-sen announced the establishment of the Republic of China in Nanking, and he was inaugurated as president on 1 January 1912.
The Revolution had huge impacts on China. It announced the end of Qing government and 4,000 years monarchy system. After Yuan Shikai took over power in the countryside, China entered a long period of turmoil. The whole revolution and the establishment of a temporary republican government spread the spirit of democracy across China.
It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, and it was the season of Darkness. The early intellectuals probably designed a perfect plan for China, an a new page was opened for the “Middle Kingdom”.
*Wong Yushan is an Intern at April Media (The 4th Media) in Beijing